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Voices of Ancient Philosophy


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List of Boxed Material: Preface: Introduction: Chronological Sketch of Ancient Philosophy: Timeline: 1. FATE AND FREEDOM Homer, Iliad 16, 512-548 Lucian, Zeus Answers a Few Awkward Questions A.: PRAISE, BLAME, AND RESPONSIBILITY FOR OUR ACTIONS Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics III, 5 The Stoics on Fate Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Fate 22 The Stoics on Moral Responsibility Cicero, On Fate 40-43 Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights 7.2, 6-13 Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Fate 11-14 Epicurus, On Nature 34, 26-30 Diogenes of Oenoanda, Epicurean Inscription fragment 54, II-III Lucretius, On the Nature of Things 2, 251-293 B.: RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE LIVES WE LEAD Plato, Republic 10 (the Myth of Er) Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism 26 C.: DIVINE FOREKNOWLEDGE OF THE FUTURE Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Fate 30-31 Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy 5 D.: IS THE FUTURE FIXED? Aristotle, On Interpretation Diodorus Cronus, The Master Argument (Epictetus, Discourses 11.19, 1-5 The Stoics on Possibility and Necessity Cicero, On Fate 12-15 Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Fate 10 2. REASON AND EMOTION A.: EXPLANATION OF INNER CONFLICT Plato, Republic 4, 436a-444a Plato, Republic 9, 588b-590d Plato, Phaedrus 253d-254e B.: WHAT IS AN EMOTION? Aristotle, Rhetoric II, part of 1,2,5,8 Aristotle, Niomachean Ethics II, 1, parts of 2 and 3; IV, 5 The Early Stoics on the Emotions Seneca, On Anger I, 7-9, 12-14, 17-18; II, 1-4, 6-10, 28 C.: A TEST CASE Euripides, Medea 1021-1080 Epictetus, Discourses I, 28,1-9; II, 17, 17-25 Galen, On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato III, 3, 13-24 D.: REASON, THE EMOTIONS, AND FAITH The Fourth Book of Maccabees selections 3. KNOWLEDGE, BELIEF, AND SKEPTICISM A.: KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE Plato, Laches 189d-201c B.: KNOWLEDGE AND TRUE BELIEF Plato, Meno 80a-86d, 96b-99e Plato, Theaetetus 200d-201c C.: RELATIVISM Plato, Theaetetus 166e-172b, 177c-179b D.: THE STRUCTURE OF A SYSTEM OF KNOWLEDGE Plato, Republic 475b-484a, 507b-511e, 514a-518d, 523a-525b, 531c-535a Aristotle, Posterior Analytics I, 1-3; II, 19 Aristotle, Metaphysics I, 1-3; II, 1 Aristotle, Parts of Animals I, 5 E.: KNOWLEDGE FROM EXPERIENCE Epicurus on Knowledge The Stoics on Knowledge F.: SKEPTICISM Plato, Theaetetus 148c-151d Sextus Empiricus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism I, 1-30, 100-117;III, 1-12 4. METAPHYSICAL QUESTIONS A.: REALITY AND PARADOX Parmenides, The Way of Truth fragments 1-8 Zeno of Elea, Arguments against Motion B.: PLATO'S FORMS: FOR AND AGAINST Plato, Phaedo 73c-76e Plato, Phaedo 78c-79a Plato, Symposium 209e-212a Plato, Republic 596a-597e Plato, Parmenides 128e-135c Diogenes of Sinope, Lives of the Philosophers VI, 53 The Stoics on Plato's Forms Aristotle, On Forms C.: CAUSE AND EXPLANATION Hippocratic Writings, The Sacred Disease selections Plato, Phaedo 96a-101e Aristotle, On Coming-to-Be and Passing-Away II, 9 Aristotle, Physics II, 3, 7-9 Plutarch, Life of Pericles 6 The Epicureans against Teleology D.: TIME Aristotle, Physics IV, 10-11, 14 The Stoics on Time Augustine, Confessions XI, selections 5. HOW SHOULD YOU LIVE? A.: THE STARTING POINT FOR ETHICAL REFLECTION Aristotle, Rhetoric I, 5 (extract) Herodotus, Histories I, 29-34 B.: THE FIRST THEORIES: VIRTUE AND HAPPINESS Democritus, Fragments on Ethics Plato, Gorgias, 468e-479e C.: THE MAJOR THEORIES Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics I, 1,2,4,5,7-10 The Stoics Cicero, On Final Ends III, 16-17, 20-26, 32-39, 42-71 The Epicureans Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus 121-135 Cicero, On Final Ends I, 29-33, 37-70 D.: DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS Plato, Theaetetus, 172b-177c The Gospel of Matthew 5, 2-20 Plotinus, Enneads I, 4 6. SOCIETY AND THE STATE A.: IS NATURE OR CONVENTION THE BASIS OF SOCIETY AND THE STATE? Plato, Protagoras 320c-323c Antiphon the Sophist, Fragment 7 Plato, Gorgias 482e-484c Plato, Crito 50a-54e Plato, Repubic 358c-360d Aristotle, Politics I, 2 Aristotle, Politics III, 9 Epicureans Epicurus, Principal Doctrines 31-38 Diogenes of Oenoanda, Epicurean Inscription fragment 56 Cicero, On Duties III, 37-39 Stoicism Cicero, On Laws I, 17-35, 42-45 B.: POLITICAL RULE: EXPERTISE AND THE RULE OF LAW Twofold Arguments 7 Plato0 Republic 488a-489c Plato, Statesman 291d-303b Aristotle, Politics I, 1; III, 4,11 C.: DEMOCRACY AND THE BEST FORM OF GOVERNMENT Herodotus, Histories III, 80-83 The Old Oligarch Aristotle, Politics IV, 3,4,7-9.11 Polybius, Histories, VI, 2 Further Reading

About the Author

Julia Annas is Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona.


"A provocative selection of readings. I am highly impressed. And at a price affordable to the student!"--Wendy C. Hamblet, California State University, Stanislaus "It is a pleasure to see an introductory reader on ancient philosophy organized around key philosophical problems. An excellent selection of topics and readings."--David Bowen, University of North Florida

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