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Spanish/English Contrasts [Spanish]
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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition 0 General introduction: Language and interlanguage0.1 Language, lects, and linguistics0.2 Comparing and contrasting languages 0.2.1 Correspondences between languages 0.2.2 Implications of the correspondences0.3 Interlanguage and sources of problems0.4 The limits of linguistics in language teaching Part One: Phonology1 Introduction to phonology1.0 Phonology vs. orthography1.1 Review of phonetics 1.1.1 Classes of sounds 1.1.2 Voicing 1.1.3 Place and manner of articulation 1.1.4 Vowels 1.1.5 Features1.2 Phonemes, allophones and rules 1.3 Phonemes and examples 2 Phonemes2.0 Comparing Systems2.1 Consonants 2.1.1 General comparison of consonant systems 2.1.2 Consonants with different articulations:/t d/ 2.1.3 Unshared consonants 2.1.3.1 The ene/n/ 2.1.3.2 The jota/x/ 2.1.3.3 The flap and trill /r r/ 2.1.4 Dialect variations 2.1.4.1 Lleismo vs. yeismo 2.1.4.2 Distinction, seseo, ceceo, ceseo: /s 0/2.2 Vowels and diphthongs 2.2.1 Two vowel systems 2.2.2 Dipthongs 2.2.3 Hiautus, syneresis, and the analysis of glides 2.2.4 Linking (liaison, enlace)2.3 The combining of phonemes into syllables and words2.4 Phonemic vs. orthographic representationNotes for chapter 2Exercises for chapter 2 3 Phonological rules3.0 Types of rules: Categorical and variable, general and dialectical3.1 Spanish rules 3.1.1 Glide strengthening 3.1.2 Nasal assimilation 3.1.3 Lateral assimilation 3.1.4 S-Voicing 3.1.5 S-Aspiration 3.1.6 Spirantization of /b d g/ 3.1.7 D-Deletion (or Fricative deletion) 3.1.8 Other consonatal processes: /x n l r r tf f/ 3.1.9 Vowel weakening 3.1.10 Vowel gliding3.2 English Rules 3.2.1 Aspiration 3.2.2 Preglottalization 3.2.3 Flapping 3.2.4 Palatalization before Yod 3.2.5 L- Velarization 3.2.6 Dipthongization 3.2.7 Vowel reduction 3.2.8 Schwa deletion3.3 Order of Difficulty: Ranking phonological problemsNotes for chapter 3Exercises for chapter 3 4 Stress and intonation4.0 Suprasegmentals4.1 Stress 4.1.1 Stress position 4.1.2 Degrees of stress 4.1.3 Stress and rhythm4.2 IntonationNotes for chapter 4Exercises for chapter 4 Part Two: Grammar5 Basic Notions of grammatical description5.0 The grammar of language5.1 Morphology: Morphemes, allomorphs, and rules5.2 Syntax: Word order, constituency, and function5.3 Grammaticality 6 Verb Morphology6.0 Verb forms and their nomenclature6.1 Spanish finite verb forms 6.1.1 Endings as slots for morphemes 6.1.2 Stem changes: Regular or irregular? 6.1.2.1 Orthographic changes 6.1.2.2 Morphophonemic changes 6.1.2.3 Other changes6.2 English finite verb forms and modals6.3 Nonfinites and compound forms 6.3.1 Infinitives 6.3.2 Gerunds and participles 6.3.3 "Absolutes" 6.3.4 Perfects, progressives, passives6.4 Verb + verb and auxiliariesNotes for chapter 6Exercises for chapter 6 7 Tense and mood7.0 Approaches to tense and mood7.1 The tense system of Spanish and English 7.1.1 Systemic meanings 7.1.1.1 Present perfect, present, future 7.1.1.2 Past perfect, past, conditional 7.1.1.3 Future perfect and conditional perfect 7.1.1.4 Summry of the tense system 7.1.2 Nonsystemic extensions: present, future, conditional 7.1.3 Aspect and tense: Preterite and imperfect7.2 The contributions of auxiliaries 7.2.1 Meanings of modals 7.2.2 "Secondary" modifications: Perfect and progressive7.3 Mood: Indicative vs. subjunctive 7.3.1 The tense system in the subjunctive 7.3.2 The meaning of mood: Theories and approaches 7.3.2.1 The subjunctive as a set of uses 7.3.2.2 The subjunctive as a marker of meaning 7.3.3 Summary of mood usageNotes for chapter 7Exercises for chapter 7 8 Noun phrase syntax and morphology8.0 Nouns and noun phrases8.1 Functions of noun phrases with verbs 8.1.1 Subject and direct object 8.1.2 Indirect object: The involved entity 8.1.3 Variation between direct and indirect objects 8.1.4 Different construction, "reverse" construction8.2 Noun morphology 8.2.1 Number and the count/mass distinction 8.2.2 Gender8.3 Modifiers in the noun phrase 8.3.1 Noun phrase constituents 8.3.2 Possession and other noun-to-noun relationships 8.3.3 Articles, demonstratives, and other determiners 8.3.4 Adjectives and agreement8.4 NP without N 8.4.1 Nominalization and pronominalization 8.4.2 The Spanish neuterNotes for chapter 8Exercises for chapter 8 9 Pronouns9.0 Pronouns as proforms9.1 Nonreflexive pronouns 9.1.1 Person 9.1.2 Gender 9.1.3 Case9.2 Variation in the pronoun system9.3 Reflexives 9.3.1 Pseudo-reflexive or "spurious" se 9.3.2 True reflexive se 9.3.3 Reciprocal se 9.3.4 Lexical or inherent se 9.3.5 Meaning-changing and/or inchoactive se 9.3.6 Intransitivizing se 9.3.7 Reflexive se of emotional reaction 9.3.8 Causative se 9.3.9 Passive and impersonal se 9.3.10 So-called "unplanned occurences" 9.3.11 Summary9.4 The syntax of pronouns 9.4.1 Pronominalizing with clitics 9.4.2 Sequences of cliticsNotes for chapter 9Exercises for chapter 9 10 Adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions10.0 The uninflected words10.1 Lexical relationships10.2 Analysis and classification 10.2.1 Classification by meaning and formation 10.2.1.1 Adverbs 10.2.1.2 Prepositions 10.2.1.3 Conjunctions 10.2.2 Classification by position and function: The adverbial phrase10.3 Semantic problems 10.3.1 'But' 10.3.2 'So' 10.3.3 'To, in, from' 10.3.4 'For' and 'by' 10.3.5 Abstract relationships10.4 Lexically or grammatically fixed usage 10.4.1 Relators that introduce adverbial idioms 10.4.2 Relators that are functors10.5 More on the verb connection: Particles and direction/mannerNotes for chapter 10Exercises for chapter 10 11 Word order and constituency11.0 Rules of syntax11.1 Phrase structure rules 11.1.1 Sentences 11.1.2 Phrases 11.1.3 NP compements and appositives 11.1.4 Summary11.2 Frrom deeep to surface structure 11.2.1 The nucleus 11.2.2 Satellites 11.2.3 Transposed satellites and "personal" a11.3 The meaning of Spanish word order 11.3.1 Nucleus with satellites 11.3.2 Nouns with determiners and quantifiers 11.3.3 Nouns with adjectives 11.3.4 Summary and generalizationNotes for chapter 11Exercies for chapter 11 12 Questions, negations, passives and commands12.0 Simple affirmative active declarative sentences12.1 Questions 12.1.1 Tag and yes/no questions 12.1.2 Information (Wh-) questions12.2 Negating and disagreeing12.3 Passive and related structures12.4 CommandsNotes for chapter 12Exercises for chapter 12 13 Complex sentences13.0 Compound vs. complex sentences 13.0.1 Types of embedded clauses 13.0.2 Reduced clauses13.1 Noun clauses 13.1.1 As subjects 13.1.2 As objects 13.1.2.1 With creer vs. believe 13.1.2.2 With decir vs. say/tell 13.1.2.3 With preferir, querer, intentar vs. prefer, want,try 13.1.2.4 With mandar and impedir vs. order and prevent 13.1.2.5 With hacer vs. make, have 13.1.2.6 With ver vs. see 13.1.2.7 Querer + V vs. poder + V 13.1.2.8 Clitic promotion 13.1.3 Noun clauses that are questions13.2 Adverbial clauses 13.2.1 Preposition + clause 13.2.2 Subordinating conjunction + clause13.3 Relative clauses 13.3.1 Relativization according to NP type 13.3.2 Headless relatives and clefting 13.3.3 Nonrestrictive relative clauses 13.3.4 Reduced relative clauses13.4 Comparative sentences 13.4.1 Patterns and forms 13.4.2 The structure of comparative sentences13.5 Complex sentences: General summaryNotes for chapter 13Exercises for chapter 13 Part Three: Beyond grammar 14 Introduction to the study of words and usage14.0 What it means to know a word14.1 An example: The meaning of compadre14.2 The ranges of usage and meaning 15 Words and their meanings15.0 The lexicon15.1 Derivational morphology 15.1.1 Affixes 15.1.2 Compounding 15.1.3 Shortening: Clipping and acronyms 15.1.4 Morphophonemics: Phonology in the lexicon15.2 Cognates: True friends, or false?15.3 Dialect differences in vocabulary15.4 Different lexicons, different meanings 15.4.1 Differences in denotation and connotation 15.4.2 Verbs of being: Ser vs. estar15.5 IdiomsNotes for chapter 15Exercises for chapter 15 16 Language knowledge and language use16.0 Linguistic and communicative competence16.1 The pragmatics of the speaker-hearer relation 16.1.1 Address and referenc, and tu vs. usted 16.1.2 Style, style shiftin, stylistics 16.1.3 Words of group identity: Argot and slang 16.1.4 Speaking strategies: Politeness and genderlect16.2 Proverbs and other cultural allusions16.3 Communicative functions in discourse 16.3.1 Grammar in discourse 16.3.2 Accuracy and function in proficieny development 16.3.3 Discourse organization 16.3.4 Speech acts and their verbal lubricants16.4 Aptitude and attitude in language learning and useNotes for chapter 16Exercises for chapter 16 Appendices1 English/Spanish glossary of linguistic terminology2 Phonological index References General Index

About the Author

M. Stanley Whitley is professor of Spanish and linguistics at Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, and coauthor of Gramatica para la composicion.

Reviews

What was a very good introduction to applied Spanish linguistics is even better, and it remains the best work in its genre. Nowhere else will the interested nonspecialist find such a rich and accessible trove of information on how Spanish works as a linguistic system for communication, along with discussion of how it can best be taught and learned. Modern Language Journal Spanish/English Contrasts is targeted specifically at current and future teachers of Spanish to English speakers, and it may be useful for translators ... A good candidate for a course on the structure of Spanish or for a comparative linguistics course. Canadian Modern Language Review

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