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Skill Acquisition and Training


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Table of Contents

Skill Acquisition and Training PREFACE Chapter 1: Skill Acquisition and Training in Context Historical Overview of Skills Research Early Studies of Skill Acquisition Transfer of Learning Skilled Action Information-Processing Approach to Skill Acquisition Phases of Skill Acquisition Quantifying Performance Changes Performance Measures Verbal Protocol Analysis Psychophysiological and Neuropsychological Measures Modeling Skill Applications of Skills Research Summary Chapter 2: Perceptual Learning Mechanisms of Perceptual Learning Attention Weighting Stimulus Imprinting Differentiation Perceptual Unitization Facilitating the Development of Perceptual Skill Visual Search Procedural Learning Adaptive Perception Summary Chapter 3: Response Selection and Motor Skill Response-Selection Skill Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff Set-Size Effects and Uncertainty Stimulus-Response Compatibility Effects Sequential Effects Motor Learning Motor Programming Perspective Dynamic Systems Approach Problems of Movement Control Factors Influencing Motor Skill Acquisition Feedback Schedules of Practice Summary Chapter 4: Attention and Skill Conceptualizing Attention Attentional Bottlenecks Attentional Resources The Psychological Refractory Period Effect Specificity of Training and Multiple Resources Attention and Automaticity Attentional Skill Timesharing Skill Enhancing Attention through Training Intelligence and Cognitive Control Mind Wandering and Executive Attention Implicit Learning Summary Chapter 5: Cognitive Skill and Instruction Problem-solving Skill The Problem Space Metacognitive Skill Learning from Examples Learning and Remembering Acquiring Knowledge Second Language Learning Schemas for Remembering Learning by Analogy The Einstellung (Mental-set) Effect Facilitating the Acquisition of Cognitive Skill Structuring Practice Spacing Practice Trials The Testing Effect Feedback Overlearning User Models and Intelligent Tutors Summary Chapter 6: Expertise The Investigation of Expertise Understanding Expert Knowledge Acquisition of Expert Performance General Characteristics of Experts Expertise in Three Specific Domains Interpreting Medical Images Computer Software Design and Programming Expert Typing Skilled Memory Theory Summary Chapter 7: Why Errors Occur and their Contributions to Learning Errors and Action Control Initiating and Maintaining Action Plans Effects of Making Errors on Learning Learning from Errors Learning from Post-event Reviews Performance Monitoring Prediction Error and Learning Repeating Errors Made During Training Error Orientation Summary Chapter 8: Individual Differences in Skill Acquisition and Maintenance Intelligence and Aptitudes Cognitive and Neural Correlates Approaches Cognitive Components Approach Aptitude-Treatment Interactions Task Analysis Based on Individual Difference Variables Dynamic Accounts of Abilities and Skill Ackerman's Modified Radex Model Norman and Shallice's Levels of Action Control Problems of Interpretation in Understanding the Relation between Abilities and Skill Level Individual Differences in Reading Skill Skill and Aging Summary Chapter 9: Situational Influences on Skilled Performance Arousal and Performance Theories Based on General Arousal and the Yerkes-Dodson Law Arguments Against "General Arousal" and the Yerkes-Dodson Law Circadian Rhythms Body Temperature and Performance Memory and Cognitive Tasks Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff Adaptation Individual Differences Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue Stressful Physical Environments Effects of Noise Effects of Extreme Temperatures Drug Use and Performance Effects of Caffeine Effects of Nicotine Effects of Alcohol Summary Chapter 10: Designing Effective Training Systems Assessing Training Requirements Structuring Training Simulator Training Team Training Crew Resource Management Implementing and Evaluating Training in Organizations Transfer Climate Continuous Learning Trainee Characteristics Self-efficacy Goal Orientation Transfer Motivation Evaluating Training Effectiveness Maximizing the Benefits of Training National Culture and Training Summary

About the Author

Addie Johnson is Professor of Human Performance and Ergonomics at the University of Groningen. She is co-author, with Robert Proctor, of Attention: Theory and Practice, and Neuroergonomics: A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Human Factors and Ergonomics. Her research focuses on the intersection of memory and attention. Robert W. Proctor is Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. In addition to the books with Addie Johnson, he is co-author, with Trisha Van Zandt, of Human Factors in Simple and Complex Systems (2nd ed.) and, with Kim-Phuong L. Vu, of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Principles: Data, Theory, and Application. His research focuses on basic and applied aspects of human performance.


A book on skill acquisition and training should be written with great skill. This one is. It is a comprehensive, up-to-date rewrite of an earlier classic by the same authors. I recommend it highly.

-David A. Rosenbaum, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA

This book by leading experts provides a superlative, up-to-date, and lucid summary of research on skill acquisition and training. Along with insightful consideration of general theories and empirical findings, the book offers astute advice concerning training in the real world.

-Alice F. Healy, College Professor of Distinction, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

This is the most complete and thorough book I've read on skill acquisition and training. It successfully links basic processes such as perception, attention, and action to the acquisition of specialized skills and the development of training systems.

-Jeroen J. G. van Merrienboer, Professor of Learning and Instruction, Maastricht University, the Netherlands

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