Tool List vii Preface for the Third Edition xiii Introduction xv Purpose xv Audiences xvi Special Elements xvii Organization of the Book xix Chapter 1 What Is This Instructional Design Stuff Anyway? 1 Why Instructional Design? 2 What Is Instructional Design? 3 A Few Definitions 5 Advantages of Instructional Design 9 Disadvantages of Instructional Design 13 Chapter 2 Before You Do Anything: Pre-Instructional Design Activities 17 Organizational Needs 18 Performance Assessment 23 Assessing Training Needs 33 Choosing Needs to Address 39 The Needs Assessment Report 42 Quick and Dirty Cost Benefit Analysis 47 Training Needs Analysis 54 Chapter 3 Do You Know What You Need to Do? Analysis 63 Data-Collection Methods 64 Why Analyze? 73 Types of Analysis 73 Computer-Aided Analysis 102 Chapter 4 How to Do It: Design 107 Make the Right Decision Now 107 Delivery Decision 108 Objectives 128 Design Documents 143 Course Descriptions 161 Gathering Content 162 Adding Structure: The Instructional Plan 168 Trainee Evaluation (Test Questions and Tests) 178 Hints for Designing in Various Formats 196 Chapter 5 Doing It Right: Development 203 End Products of Development 203 The Facilitator Guide as an End Product 205 Scripts and Storyboards 231 Participant Packages and Other Print Materials 235 Other Media 239 Hints for Developing Material 247 Chapter 6 Getting It Where It Does the Most Good: Implementation 263 Beta Tests and Pilots 263 Reviews Revisited 279 Common Implementation Issues 282 Other Instructor-Led Classroom Implementation Needs 287 Hints for Implementation 299 Field Trips 306 Chapter 7 Did It Do Any Good? Evaluation 311 Why Evaluation? 311 The Key to Good Evaluation 312 Types of Evaluation 315 Evaluation of Self-Instruction Programs 334 Revisions: What to Do with What You?ve Learned 338 Hints for Evaluating 344 Chapter 8 Doing It Faster: More Rapid Design Shortcuts 353 Software for Instructional Design 354 Analysis Software 355 Test Development Software 355 Miscellaneous Software 356 Rapid Prototyping 356 Learning Objects Granular Training 357 Public Courses 358 Off-The-Shelf Programs 358 Technology Vendors 358 Performance Support?Based ?Training? 359 Problem-Based Learning (PBL) 361 Training Management SystemsLearning Management Systems (LMS)Learning Content Management Systems (LCMS) 361 Digital Cameras 362 What Does an ID Do? 362 Miscellaneous 364 Chapter 9 Asynchronous e-Learning Design 367 Definitions 367 Creating and Implementing an e-Learning System 369 Determining a Comprehensive e-Learning Strategy 371 Designing and Developing Good Programs 373 Learning Management Systems and Learning Content Management Systems 374 Preparing the Organization Globally for e-Learning 378 Self-Direction and e-Learning 380 Planning for a Smooth, Successful Implementation 384 Creating an Effective Monitoring and Evaluation Plan 385 Asynchronous e-Learning Design and Development 387 Analysis 387 Material Development 390 Learner Evaluation 397 Learner Interfaces 398 Beta Tests and Pilots 399 Software 400 Repurposing 401 Evaluating Asynchronous e-Learning Programs 403 Summary 403 Chapter 10 Synchronous e-Learning Design 409 Advantages 409 Disadvantages and Misconceptions 410 Design Considerations for Synchronous e-Learning 413 Mini-Interactions 414 Repurposing and Redesigning Synchronous e-Learning Programs 415 Other Synchronous Activities 416 More Detailed Facilitator Guides 419 Learner Guide 422 General Technology Considerations 423 Media 425 Designing Continuing Interactions 430 Audience Analysis 432 Implementation 434 Online Learning: A Special Type of e-Learning 446 What the Learners Say 451 Chapter 11 New Design Applications 453 Flipped Classrooms 453 Mobile Learning 457 Virtual Learning Environments 461 Social Network?Based Learning 463 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) 466 Communities of Practice 468 Informal Learning 469 The Cloud 471 Glossary 475 Suggested Readings 499 Other Resources 511 About the Author 517 Index 519
GEORGE M. PISKURICH is an organizational learning andperformance consultant specializing in e-learning interventions,performance analysis, and telecommuting. He is an active member ofboth ISPI and ASTD, with over twenty-five years of experience inlearning technology facilitation and design for both multi-nationalcorporations and smaller organizations. George also teaches at JohnCarroll University, N.C. State, Georgia State, and MercerUniversity, and resides in El Paso, TX.