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Chapter 1 Prayer - Salat Excellent Merits of Prayer 1 Call to Prayer - Adhan 2 Five Set Prayers - Salat 3 Correct Performance - Ta'dil 4 Congregational Prayer - Jama`a 5 Prostration - Sujud 6 Humble Adoration - Khushu' 7 The Mosque and Place of Prayer - Masjid Internal Prerequisites: Actions of the Heart Humility and Conscious Awareness Internal States Conducive to Perfecting the Life in Prayer Awareness - Understanding - Reverence - Awe -Hope - Shame Medication Conducive to Inner Serenity Inner States at Each Stage of Prayer The Call to Prayer - Ritual Purity - Covering Private Parts - Facing the Qibla - Standing Upright - Intention - Takbir - Opening Invocations - Reciting the Quran - Bowing Down - Prostration - Sitting and Testifying - End of Supplication - Salutation Stories of the Humble Chapter 2 Almsgiving - Zakat 1 Understand the Purpose and Significance Testing the Degree of Love for God - Elimination of Miserliness - Expression of Gratitude 2 Payment at Proper Time 3 Give in Secret 4 Give Openly 5 Avoid Taunting and Hurting 6 Adopt Humility 7 Give the Best and the Dearest 8 Seek the Worthy and Deserving Chapter 3 Fasting - Sawm Three Grades Inward Requirements See not what displeases God - Speak not... - Hear not... - Do not... - Avoid Overeating - Look to God with Fear and Hope Importance of Observing Inward Aspects Chapter 4 Pilgrimage - Hajj Its Excellences and Its Merit The Pilgrimage The Ka'ba and Makka the Ennobled Residing in Makka Madina the Radiant 3 Fine Points of Propriety; Internal Conduct Purity of Intention and Means - Shunning Unlawful Taxes - Moderation in Expenditure - Forsaking Evil Conduct - Going on Foot - Modesty and Simplicity of Transport - Shabbiness in Dress and Appearance - Kindness to Beasts of Burden - Sacrificing Animals - Equanimity Inner States at Various Stages of Hajj Understanding - Yearning - Resolve - Severing Ties - Provisions - Transport - Purchase of Ihram - Leaving Home - Crossing the Desert - Putting on Ihram and Crying `Labbayk' - Entering Makka - Seeing the Ka'ba - Circumambulating the House (Tawaf) - Touching the Black Stone - Standing at Multazam - Running between al-Safa and al-Marwa (Sa'y) - Standing at `Arafat - Casting Pebbles (Ramy) - Sacrificing Animals - Visiting Madina - Visiting God's Messenger Conclusions Chapter 5 Night Vigil - Qiyam al-Layl Quranic Verses - Traditions of the Prophet - Traditions of the Companions and Their Followers Chapter 6 Invoking Blessings upon God's Messenger Chapter 7 The Merit of Seeking Forgiveness - Istighfar
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AL-GHAZALI, Abu Hamid Muhammad (450/1058-505/1111), a towering figure in Islam, was born at Tus, near Mashhad in Iran, in the early Seljuq era and studied theology and law at Nishapur. His formidable intellectual abilities soon won him honour and respect at the court of the famous Seljuqi Prime Minister, Nizam al-Mulk, and, while still in his early thirties, he became Professor at Madrasa Nizamiyya in Baghdad and attained great prominence there. But soon he abandoned his professorship for a decade of contemplation and study. He returned for a while to lecture at the Nizamiyya in Nishapur before his death. He wrote a large number of works, which include Al-Munqidh min al-Dalal (a biographical account), Tahafut al-Falasifa; but his magnum opus remains the Ihya' Ulum al-Din in four volumes, compiled during his period of retirement and contemplation. MUHTAR HOLLAND, the translator, was born in Durham in the North-East of England in 1935. Whilst still a pupil at the Johnston Grammar School there, he developed a strong interest in foreign languages which led him to later study of Arabic and Turkish at Balliol College, Oxford. Subsequently, during his National Service in the Royal Navy, he also learned Russian. He went on to lecture in Arabic, Turkish, and Near-Eastern History at the University of Toronto, then in Islamic Law at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He taught Classical Arabic and Greek Philosophy at the Institute of Malay Language, Literature and Culture, of the National University of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur. For a time he was a Senior Research Fellow at the Islamic Foundation, Leicester.