Illustrations xi DVD Contents xv Acknowledgments xxxiii Preface: 25th Anniversary Edition xxxix Background xxxix Changes in Art Therapy and Mental Health xl Changes in Organization and Content of the Book xli PART I The Context 1 Roots: Personal and Professional 3 Personal 3 Professional 6 Personal/Professional Passage 8 A Personal Experience of the Creative Process 9 Making Pictures Helps My Mourning Process 13 About This Book 14 2 A Framework for Freedom 19 Conditions for Creative Growth 29 3 Understanding Development in Art 34 Progression in Normal Artistic Development 34 Where a Child Is 46 General Issues in Development 48 4 A Picture of the Therapeutic Process 57 Testing 58 Trusting 61 Risking 62 Communicating 63 Facing 64 Understanding 66 Accepting 68 Coping 69 Separating 70 5 Some Ways to Facilitate Expression 73 A Starter (A Scribble) 73 A Theme 74 A Medium 77 A Dream 78 A Mask 81 A Target 83 A Tape Recorder 85 A Poem 88 A Story 89 A Picture-Taking Machine 90 Flashlights and Candles 90 Extending the Range 92 Conclusion 92 PART II The Individual 6 An Individual Art Evaluation 97 Background 97 Initiating the Interview 99 Getting Started 103 The Art Materials 106 The Space 110 Talking about the Artwork 113 Abstract Artwork 115 Some Things Are Easier to Say and to See in Art 117 Productivity 118 Recommendations 119 7 Decoding Symbolic Messages 121 To Write or Not to Write? 121 Verbal Communications 122 To Talk or Not to Talk? 122 Nonverbal Communications 123 Interaction with the Therapist 123 Response to the Task 124 Response to the Materials 124 The Working Process 125 Products: Form 126 Form and Process as Content 128 Products: Content 129 Common Themes 129 Self-Representations 131 Degree of Disguise 131 Attitude toward the Product 132 Making Sense 134 Reporting 135 8 Some Case Studies 137 Ellen: An Elective Mute 138 Dorothy: A Child with Schizophrenia 145 Randy: A Boy with Encopresis 150 Conclusion 152 9 Case Illustration: Understanding and Helping 153 Individual Art Evaluation 156 Group Art Therapy 158 Joint Mother-Child Art Sessions 160 Family Art Evaluation 161 Family Art Therapy 162 Joint Nonverbal Drawing 167 PART III The Family and the Group 10 A Family Art Evaluation 173 Format 174 Scribble Drawing 177 Family Representations 178 Family Mural 180 Free Products 182 Making Sense 182 Characteristics 183 Modifications 185 11 Family Art Therapy 188 Family Member Dyads 188 Conjoint Family Art Therapy 193 Occasional Conjoint Family Art Sessions 196 Multimodal Family Art Sessions 197 12 Art Therapy with Parents 200 Individual Art Therapy 200 Mother-Child Art Therapy Group 202 Short-Term Parent-Child Art Therapy Groups 214 Mothers' Art Therapy Groups 215 Conclusion 217 13 Group Art Therapy 218 History and Development 218 Deciding What to Do 220 Activities in Art Therapy Groups 222 Groups and How They Grow 225 The Use of Structure in Unstructured Groups 228 Group Themes and Concerns 229 Creative Play with Food 230 Role-Taking in Interviews 231 Interviewing Each Other 231 Reviewing in a Group 233 Individual Growth in a Group: Don 233 Group Growth: New Members and Endings 234 Conclusion 236 14 Multimodality Group Therapy 237 Relationships among the Arts 237 The First Art-Drama Therapy Group: Latency-Age Boys 240 The Second Art-Drama Therapy Group: Adolescents 249 Role of the Leader 257 Conclusion 258 PART IV Art Therapy for Disabled Children 15 Art as Therapy for Children with Disabilities 263 The Universality of Creativity 263 Children with Schizophrenia in a Psychiatric Hospital 264 Children with Physical Disabilities in a Residential Institution 266 Deaf Children in a Day School 268 Children with Developmental Delays in a Preschool 271 Blind Children with Multiple Disabilities in a Residential School 272 Changes over the Years since the First Edition 276 Special Considerations in Art for Children with Disabilities 277 Values of Art for Children with Disabilities 278 16 Art Therapy with Disabled Children and Their Parents 285 Similarities and Differences 285 Coming to Terms with Blindness 300 Outpatient Mothers' Therapy Group: Sustenance and Support 307 PART V Art as Therapy for Everyone 17 Helping the Normal Child through Art 311 Therapeutic Values in Art Education 311 Dealing with Normal Stresses through Art 313 Loss of Parental Figures 326 Conclusion 328 18 Helping Parents through Art and Play 330 Art as Therapy for Normal Adults 330 Education in the Community 331 Family Art Workshop: Elementary School 332 Parent Art Workshop in a School 334 Mothers and Toddlers in a Church 334 Parent Play Groups 338 Sample Activities to Help Parents Understand Developmental Phases 339 Possible Ways to Proceed 343 PART VI General Issues 19 What Child Art Therapy Is and Who Can Do It 347 Art Therapy and Art Education 348 Art Therapy and Play Therapy 350 Qualities of Good Child Art Therapists 351 20 Why and How the Art Therapist Helps 356 The Need and Capacity to Create 356 The Creative Process as a Learning Experience 357 The Art Therapist as a Real Person and Symbolic Other: Transference 359 An Artist and a Therapist 363 The Art Therapist as a Change Agent 364 Extending Opportunities: Art Therapy Consultation 365 21 How the Art Therapist Learns through Research 368 Introduction and Issues 368 Objective Observation 369 Subjective Clinical Assessments 370 Grouping and Goal-Setting 370 Assessing Change in Blind Children I 371 Assessing Change in Blind Children II 373 A Phenomenological Investigation 375 Self-Assessments of Art Products 376 Measurement of Media Popularity 376 Group Drawings and Group Dynamics 377 Diagnostic Questions about Child Art 378 Variability in Children's Art 380 Free Association in Art Imagery 381 Relationships between Creativity and Mental Health 382 Comparing Products from Art and Drama Interviews 383 Conclusion 384 A Cautionary Note 387 References 389 Index 407 About the DVD 419
JUDITH ARON RUBIN, PHD, ATR-BC, is a licensed psychologist and faculty member of the University of Pittsburgh and the Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic Society and Institute. She is a former president of the American Art Therapy Association, the author of five books, and the creator of five teaching films. She consults, lectures, and gives workshops across the country as well as abroad, and is preparing a series of art therapy teaching tapes for students and professionals.
?Judith Rubin is an original: A humble and wise art therapist who paved the way for the clinical credibility of art therapy. She was a pioneer, exploring art as therapy (which we now take for granted), at a time when this thought was innovative and original. She furthered the discussion of various ways to use art therapy and she has maintained a steady and invested interest in the development of the field. This book is a must-read for anyone who desires a strong and substantive foundation to the development and growth of the field of art therapy. Her latest efforts in chronicling art therapists around the world ?doing? the work as well as honoring the vast contributions of Fred Rogers, are a testimony to her ongoing wish to push art therapy forward.?? Eliana Gil, Gil Institute for Trauma Recovery & Education