Chemistry - An Introduction for Medical and Health Sciences
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Introduction 1

How to use the book 1

1 Starting Chemistry 3

1.1 Terminology and processes used in drug manufacture 4

1.2 Atoms and things 9

1.3 Chemical reactions and the periodic table 11

2 Covalent Compounds and Organic Molecules 15

2.1 How to make stable molecules 18

2.2 Covalent compounds 18

2.3 General Properties of Covalent Compounds 22

2.4 Characteristic shapes and bond angles within covalent molecules 23

2.5 Some covalent bonds with slight ionic character 24

2.6 Double-bonded carbon compounds or ‘unsaturated’ carbon bonds 25

2.7 Some further compounds of carbon 27

2.8 The carbon cycle 28

2.9 Isomerism: some different arrangements of atoms within a molecule 29

2.10 Naming organic compounds if you really want to know! 33

2.11 Ring structures 36

2.12 Compounds of carbon containing other groups 37

2.13 Some further examples with explanations 37

3 Organic Compounds Containing Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen: Alcohols and Ethers 43

3.1 Alcohols, Cn H2n +1OH 45

3.2 Properties of alcohols: monohydric alcohols with one OH group 46

3.3 Other alcohols: di- and tri-hydric alcohols 48

3.4 Aromatic OH compounds: phenol 49

3.5 Ethers are isomers of alcohols 50

4 Carbonyl compounds: compounds containing C=O Groups 55

4.1 Simple aldehydes and ketones: carboxylic acids and esters 56

4.2 Carbohydrates, monosaccharides and sugars 58

4.3 Disaccharides 60

4.4 Digestion of sugars 61

4.5 More about sugars – if you really need to know! 62

4.6 Carboxylic acids: another set of CHO compounds containing C=O groups 63

4.7 Salts and esters 63

4.8 Lipids or fats 65

4.9 Chemical energy in cells 67

4.10 Chemicals in food 68

4.11 Soaps and detergents 69

5 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 73

5.1 Amines and amino acids 75

5.2 Amino acids 76

5.3 Peptide formation and protein synthesis 77

5.4 Hydrolysis (action of water) of peptides 78

5.5 Other properties of amino acids 79

5.6 Protein metabolism 79

5.7 Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA 80

6 Vitamins, Steroids, Hormones and Enzymes 85

6.1 Vitamins 86

6.2 Steroids and hormones 94

6.3 Enzymes 96

7 Ions, Electrolytes, Metals and Ionic Bonding 103

7.1 Introduction to ionic bonding 105

7.2 Some common properties of ions and ionic bonds 107

7.3 Electrolytes and ions of the body 109

7.4 Major cations (positive ions) in the body: sodium, potassium and calcium ions 110

7.5 Balance between fluids 113

7.6 Essential elements present in small quantities: micronutrients and minerals 114

7.7 Cancer treatments and chemotherapies that use metal compounds 115

8 Water 119

8.1 Introduction What makes water so unique? 121

8.2 Chemical reactions in aqueous solution 123

8.3 Dissolving and solubility: water is a great solvent 124

8.4 Osmosis 126

8.5 Dialysis 127

8.6 Colloids 128

8.7 Water, washing and detergents 129

8.8 Water vapour 130

8.9 Evaporation from skin 131

8.10 Solid water 132

8.11 Hydrolysis 133

9 Acids and Bases 135

9.1 Acids 137

9.2 Bases and alkali 140

9.3 Bases containing nitrogen 141

9.4 Amino acids and zwitterions 142

9.5 Salts 142

9.6 Neutralization 143

9.7 Buffer solutions 143

9.8 Buffers in the body 144

9.9 Digestion and acid attack 145

9.10 Acids in the environment 146

10 Oxidation and Reduction 149

10.1 Definitions of oxidation and reduction 150

10.2 Burning and oxidation 153

10.3 Some applications of redox reactions to metabolic processes 153

10.4 Nitric oxide, NO or N(II)O 154

10.5 Oxygen gas 156

11 Analytical Techniques 159

11.1 The need for analysis 160

11.2 Mass spectroscopy 162

11.3 Chromatography 165

11.4 Spectroscopy of various types 168

11.5 Electron microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 170

11.6 Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 173

11.7 General conclusions 174

12 Radioactivity 177

12.1 Introduction to the effects of radiation 178

12.2 Isotopes and radioactivity 179

12.3 Splitting the nuclei of atoms 181

12.4 Properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation 182

12.5 Half-life 185

12.6 Radiation everywhere 186

12.7 Conclusion 188

13 Rates of Reaction 191

13.1 Effect of temperature on reactions and metabolism 193

13.2 Why does a chemical reaction slow down on cooling? 194

13.3 Free radicals 197

13.4 Effect of concentration on chemical reactions 197

13.5 Catalysts and enzymes 198

13.6 How catalysts and enzymes work 199

13.7 Application of chemical reactions to drug use 201

14 Overview of Chemicals Fighting Diseases 205

14.1 Drugs ancient and modern 205

14.2 Cancer treatments 210

14.3 Pain killers 213

14.4 Stopping attack by ‘aliens’ on our bodies: viruses and bacteria 214

14.5 AIDS and HIV 215

14.6 Gene therapy 217

14.7 Some changes of use of existing drugs 217

15 Numbers and Quantities 221

15.1 Standard notation, powers of 10 223

15.2 Moles 223

15.3 Powers of numbers and logs 224

15.4 Moles in formulae and equations 228

15.5 Moles in solution 229

15.6 Concentration in ppm, parts per million 230

15.7 Dilutions 230

15.8 Percentage by mass 231

Appendix 1: Alphabetical List of the Common Elements 235

Appendix 2: Periodic Classification of the Common Elements 237

Glossary 239

Bibliography 253

Index 257

About the Author

Professor Alan Jones is a recently retired Academic that is still involved in aspects of chemistry education. For many years Alan Jones taught chemistry to health students at Nottingham Trent University.

Reviews

"an excellent book to refresh long forgotten chemistry related-facts... full of cartoons that will give you a chuckle." (Accident and Emergency Nursing Journal, July 2006) "... well written and organized book... " (Education in Chemistry, January 2007)

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