Biophysical Ecology


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- A Reductionist Approach.- Physical Factors.- A Multiplicity of Variables.- Organization of the Book.- Photosynthesis.- Animal Energetics.- Microclimates.- Knowledge of Ecosystems.- 2 Energy and Energy Budgets.- Organism Temperatures.- Microclimate.- The Energy Environment.- Coupling between Organism and Environment.- Climate Factors.- Energy Budgets.- 3 Application to Plants.- Energy Budget of a Leaf.- Sample Calculations of Leaf Temperature.- Photosynthesis by Leaves.- Problems.- 4 Application to Animals.- Energy Exchange.- The Analysis.- Body Temperature.- Physiological Properties.- Sample Calculations.- Climate-Space.- Problems.- 5 Radiation Laws, Units, and Definitions.- Radiation Laws.- Système International.- Radiometric Terminology.- Photometric Terminology.- Solar Illumination and Irradiation.- Problems.- 6 Solar Radiation.- Sun and Earth Geometry.- Direct Solar Irradiation without Atmosphere.- Attenuation by the Earth’s Atmosphere.- Direct Solar Irradiation with Atmosphere.- Diffuse and Global Shortwave Irradiation with a Clear Sky.- Global Shortwave Irradiation with an Overcast Sky.- Measured Amounts of Global Radiation.- Daylight and Twilight.- Moonlight.- Plant Productivity.- Solar and Skylight Irradiation of Slopes.- Problems.- 7 Longwave and Total Radiation.- Terrestrial Longwave Radiation.- Nighttime Radiation Climate.- Measured Thermal Radiation.- Daytime Radiation Climate.- Absorption of Radiation.- Sample Calculations.- Diurnal Radiation Climate.- Problems.- 8 Spectral Characteristics of Radiation and Matter.- Molecular Spectra.- The Atmospheric Absorption Spectrum.- Thermal Emission Spectra.- Atmospheric Scattering.- Spectral Distribution of Direct Solar Radiation.- Spectral Distribution of Skylight.- Spectral Distribution ofGlobal Radiation.- Comparative Spectral Distribution of Natural Light.- Spectral Properties of Liquid Water.- Spectral Properties of Plants.- Leaf Optical Properties with Angle of Incidence.- Spectral Properties of Animals.- Problems.- 9 Conduction and Convection.- Viscosity.- Heat Transfer by Conduction.- Theory of Convection.- Dimensionless Groups.- Forced Convection with Laminar Flow.- Forced Convection with Turbulent Flow.- Forced Flow over a Cylinder.- Forced Flow over a Sphere.- Forced Flow over Animals.- Free Convection.- Actual Broad Leaves.- Leaf Adaptation to Environment Problems.- 10 Evaporation and Transpiration.- Ideal Gas Law.- Definitions.- Mass Transfer.- First Law of Thermodynamics.- Enthalpy and Equivalent Temperature.- Wet Surface of Vegetation.- Transpiration by Leaves.- Environmental Influences on Leaf Resistance.- Problems.- 11 Energy Budgets of Plants.- Time-Dependent Energy Budgets.- Observed Transients.- Steady-State Energy Budget.- Observed Leaf Temperatures.- Optimal Leaf Size.- Photosynthesis; Taking into Account Light and Temperature.- Adaptation to High Radiation.- Problems.- 12 Energy Budgets of Animals.- Steady-State Energy Budgets.- Metabolic Rate.- Thermal Conductance.- Metabolism and Body Size.- Body Temperatures.- Evaporative Water Loss.- Insulation by Fur or Feathers.- Radiation Absorbed.- Radiation Emitted.- Convection Coefficients.- Appendages.- Behavior and Special Anatomical Features.- Lizards.- Alligators.- Chipmunks.- White-Tailed Deer.- Distributed-Parameter Model.- Additional Information.- Problems.- 13 Time-Dependent Energetics of Animals.- Animals without Pelage.- Animals with Pelage.- Body-Temperature-Dependent M and ?Eb.- General Time-Varying Environment.- Evolution of Thermoregulation.- Problems.- 14 Photosynthesis.-Photosynthesis.- Analytical Models.- Photosynthesis Model without Respiration.- Respiration.- Resistances.- Photosynthesis Model with Respiration.- Biochemical Model of Photosynthesis.- Problems.- 15 Temperature and Organisms.- Temperature History of the Earth’s Climate.- Physiology and Temperature.- Higher Plants.- Grasslands.- Arctic and Alpine Ecosystems.- Temperature Effects on Insects.- Appendices.- Appendix 1: Conversion Factors: Système International (SI) Units and cgs Equivalents.- Appendix 2: Physical Constants.- Appendix 3: Properties of Air, Water Vapor, and Carbon Dioxide.- Appendix 4: Determination of Solar Altitude and Azimuth.- References.

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