Biomechanics of Sport and Exercise
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Table of Contents

Introduction. Why Study Biomechanics?
What Is Biomechanics?
What Are the Goals of Sport and Exercise Biomechanics?
The History of Sport Biomechanics
The Organization of Mechanics
Basic Dimensions and Units of Measurement Used in Mechanics
Summary

Part I. External Biomechanics: External Forces and Their Effects on the Body and Its Movement

Chapter 1. Forces: Maintaining Equilibrium or Changing Motion
What Are Forces?
Classifying Forces
Friction
Addition of Forces: Force Composition
Resolution of Forces
Static Equilibrium
Summary

Chapter 2. Linear Kinematics: Describing Objects in Linear Motion
Motion
Linear Kinematics
Uniform Acceleration and Projectile Motion
Summary

Chapter 3. Linear Kinetics: Explaining the Causes of Linear Motion
Newton’s First Law of Motion: Law of Inertia
Conservation of Momentum
Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Law of Acceleration
Impulse and Momentum
Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Law of Action-Reaction
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
Summary

Chapter 4. Work, Power, and Energy: Explaining the Causes of Motion Without Newton
Work
Energy
The Work–Energy Principle
Power
Summary

Chapter 5. Torques and Moments of Force: Maintaining Equilibrium or Changing Angular Motion
What Are Torques?
Forces and Torques in Equilibrium
What Is Center of Gravity?
Summary

Chapter 6. Angular Kinematics: Describing Objects in Angular Motion
Angular Position and Displacement
Angular and Linear Displacement
Angular Velocity
Angular and Linear Velocity
Angular Acceleration
Angular and Linear Acceleration
Anatomical System for Describing Limb Movements
Summary

Chapter 7. Angular Kinetics: Explaining the Causes of Angular Motion
Angular Inertia
Angular Momentum
Angular Interpretation of Newton’s First Law of Motion
Angular Interpretation of Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Angular Impulse and Angular Momentum
Angular Interpretation of Newton’s Third Law of Motion
Summary

Chapter 8. Fluid Mechanics: The Effects of Water and Air
Buoyant Force: Force Due to Immersion
Dynamic Fluid Force: Force Due to Relative Motion
Summary

Part II. Internal Biomechanics: Internal Forces and Their Effects on the Body and Its Movement

Chapter 9. Mechanics of Biological Materials: Stresses and Strains on the Body
Stress
Strain
Mechanical Properties of Materials: The Stress–Strain Relationship
Mechanical Properties of the Musculoskeletal System
Summary

Chapter 10. The Skeletal System: The Rigid Framework of the Body
Bones
Joints
Summary

Chapter 11. The Muscular System: The Motors of the Body
The Structure of Skeletal Muscle
Muscle Action
Muscle Contraction Force
Summary

Chapter 12. The Nervous System: Control of the Musculoskeletal System
The Nervous System and the Neuron
The Motor Unit
Receptors and Reflexes
Summary

Part III. Applying Biomechanical Principles

Chapter 13. Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis to Improve Technique
Types of Biomechanical Analysis
Steps of a Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis
Sample Analyses
Summary

Chapter 14. Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis to Improve Training
Biomechanics and Training
Qualitative Anatomical Analysis Method
Sample Analyses
Summary

Chapter 15. Qualitative Biomechanical Analysis to Understand Injury Development
Mechanical Stress and Injury
Tissue Response to Stress
Mechanism of Overuse Injury
Individual Differences in Tissue Threshold
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting Injury
Sample Analysis: Overuse Injuries in Running
Summary

Chapter 16. Technology in Biomechanics
Quantitative Biomechanical Analysis
Measurement Issues
Tools for Measuring Biomechanical Variables
Summary

About the Author

Peter M. McGinnis, PhD, is a distinguished service professor in the kinesiology department at the State University of New York College at Cortland, where he has taught and coached pole vaulters since 1990. Before 1990, McGinnis was an assistant professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Northern Colorado. During that time, he also served as a sport biomechanist in the Sports Science Division of the U.S. Olympic Committee in Colorado Springs, where he conducted applied sport biomechanics research, tested athletes, taught biomechanics courses to coaches, and developed educational materials for coaches.

He has authored numerous articles and technical reports about the biomechanics of pole vaulting and has been a reviewer for Sports Biomechanics, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, and Journal of Sports Sciences. McGinnis is a member of numerous professional organizations, including the American College of Sports Medicine, American Society of Biomechanics, International Society of Biomechanics, and ASTM International. He served as chair of the ASTM International pole vault equipment subcommittee for 12 years. He is also a member of USA Track and Field’s Sports Medicine and Science Committee, serving as the biomechanist for the pole vault. In 2012 USA Track and Field honored him with the Dr. C. Harmon Brown Sports Medicine and Science Award.

McGinnis received a PhD in physical education from the University of Illinois in 1984 and a BS in engineering from Swarthmore College in 1976. He was inducted into the Swarthmore College Garnet Athletics Hall of Fame in 2014.

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