(Note: Every reading is followed by Critical Reading Questions and Questions for Discussion and Writing.) Part I: THE WRITER'S CRAFT. 1. THE WRITER'S PROCESS. Introduction. Warm-up Practice 1.1 Writing Rituals. Chapter Objectives. The Writing Process. Practice 1.2 Writing Processes. Brainstorming Strategies. Keeping a Writer's Notebook. Practice 1.3 Keeping a Notebook. Freewriting. Practice 1.4 Freewriting. Clustering. Practice 1.5 Clustering. Listing and Outlining. Composing. Researching. Focusing and Developing a Thesis. Organizing. Writing the First Draft. Reading: Anne Lamott, From Bird by Bird. Revising. Refocusing. Reordering. Adding. Cutting. Editing and Proofreading. Peer Editing. The Process. The Writer. The Peer Editor. One Student's Writing Process: Justin Lin. Freewrite. Annotated First Draft. Peer-Editing Log Sheet. Final Draft. Critical Reading Questions. Publishing. Reading: Andrew Waite (Student), 'Recovery Is Not Something You Get Over': Span Provides Lifelong Support for Nurses with Addictions. Writing in the Works: Interview with Andrew Waite. Readings: Sufjan Stevens, How I Trumped Rudolf Steiner and Overcame the Tribulations of Illiteracy, One Snickers Bar at a Time. Stephen King, From on Writing. Caitlin Reynolds (Student), Finally a Writer. 2. WRITING WITH STYLE AND VOICE. Introduction. Warm-Up Practice 2.1 Defining Style and Voice. Reading: Lewis Thomas, From the Lives of a Cell. Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Visualizing. Ten Strategies for a Clear Writing Style. Lose the Fat. Practice 2.2 Cutting Wordiness. Practice 2.3 Deleting Doublespeak. Build Muscular Language. Practice 2.4 Identifying Active and Passive Voices. Practice 2.5 Choosing Active or Passive Voice. Practice 2.6 Editing for Clarity and Brevity. Understanding Voice. Practice 2.7 Defining Voice. Adding Creative Touches. Use Figures of Speech, but Sparingly. Practice 2.8 Creating Oxymorons. Use the Sound of Words. Use the Rhythm of Sentences. Practice 2.9 Identifying Figurative Language, Sound, and Rhythm. Practice 2.10 Revising for Style. Practice 2.11 Writing Prompts. Visual Literacy: Considering Visual Style. 3. READING, THINKING, AND LOOKING CRITICALLY. Introduction. Chapter Objectives. Ten Questions for Critical Thinking and Reading. Active Reading. Underlining Key Points. Paraphrasing. Summarizing. Warm-Up Practice 3.1 Underlining, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing. Annotation and Marginal Notes. Outlining or Clustering. Practice 3.2 Annotation and Outlining. Analyzing and Synthesizing. Analysis. Practice 3.3 Deciding on Principles of Division for Analysis. Practice 3.4 Analyzing Words and Images. Sidebar: Analyzing Texts, Analyzing Images. Synthesis. Practice 3.5 Writing a Synthesis Sentence. Interpreting Irony and Figurative Language. Irony. Practice 3.6 Irony. Metaphors and Other Figures of Speech. Practice 3.7 Metaphor. Practice 3.8 Annotating Ironic and Figurative Language. Distinguishing Fact from Opinion. Determining the Bias of Sources. Practice 3.9 Distinguishing Fact from Opinion. Writer's Background and Publication Type. Practice 3.10 Detecting a Source's Bias. The Way the Material Is Written. Active Looking. Layout. Practice 3.11 Using Layout to Emphasize Meaning. Color. Practice 3.12 Using Color to Emphasize Meaning. Checklist for Active Looking. Readings and Images. Reading: Virginia Hefferman, The Pleasure of Rabbit Holes. Part II: ASSIGNMENTS. 4. SHORT ARTICLES: WRITING EXPOSITION. Assignment. Short Articles. Applications: School, Community, Work. Visual Literacy: Finding a Thesis in a Photo Essay. Warm-Up Practice 4.1 Collaborative Activity. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Short Articles. Focus: The Explanatory Thesis. Practice 4.2 A Thesis and Its Promise. Strategies for Developing Ideas. Examples. Practice 4.3 Using Examples. Description. Practice 4.4 Using Description. Narration (Storytelling). Practice 4.5 Using Narration. Definition. Practice 4.6 Using Definition. Process Analysis. Practice 4.7 Using Process Analysis. Comparison and/or Contrast. Practice 4.8 Using Comparison and/or Contrast. Classification. Practice 4.9 Using Classification. Causes and/or Effects. Practice 4.10 Using Cause and Effect. Practice 4.11 Using Development Strategies. Research Paths. Anatomy of a Short Article. Practice 4.12 Finding Sources and Integrating Research. Anatomy of a Short Article. Reading: Laura Wilcox, Going with the Grain. Introduction. Body. Conclusion. Reading: Gunjan Sinha, Genetics: The Moistness of your Earway Is Controlled by a Single GeneuAnd That May Be More Important Than You Think. Annotate Genetics. Readings: Janet Rae-Dupree, How Bullets Tell a Tale. Charles Fishman, Mighty Mice. Charles Fishman, The Scoop on Disney's Dirty Laundry, Katie Koch (Student), Reading at Grade Level. Writing in the Works: Interview with Charles Fishman. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 5. APPLICATION ESSAYS: WRITING FOR A SPECIFIC AUDIENCE. Assignment. Application Essays. Applications: School, Community, Work. Visual Literacy: Your Image and Style. Warm-Up Practice 5.1 Collaborative Activity. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Application Essays. Purpose and Audience. Finding Your Focus: Reading the Prompt of Question. Purpose of the Prompt. Practice 5.2 Writing a Prompt. Types of Prompts. Practice 5.3 Analyzing Prompts. Choosing a Development Strategy. Using Narration. Using Analysis. Using Argumentation. Combining Strategies. Research Paths. Practice 5.4 Research. Anatomy of an Application Essay. Reading: Jessica Polanski (Student), Smoke. Writing a Thesis. Practice 5.5 Analyzing Thesis Statements. Introduction. Practice 5.6 Analyzing Introductions. Body. Conclusion. Sidebar: Tips for Writing Application Essays. Reading: Stephanie Sheen, African Eyes. Annotate African Eyes. Readings: Katie Robbins (Student), An American's Freedom to Choose. Nitya K. Venkataraman (Student), That Other Part. Writing in the Works: Interview with Nitya K. Venkataraman. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 6. MEMOIRS: WRITING A NARRATIVE. Assignment. Memoirs. Applications: School, Community, Work. Warm-Up Practice 6.1 Collaborative Writing: Six-Word Memoir. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Memoirs. Visual Literacy: Snapshots. Setting. Practice 6.2 Description of Setting. Practice 6.3 Writing Sensory Description. Character. Practice 6.4 Description of Character. Point of View. Dialogue. Sidebar: Punctuation Dialogue. Practice 6.5 Dialogue. Conflict. Theme. Sidebar: Narrative Techniques. Practice 6.6 Using Narrative Techniques. Practice 6.7 Show, Don't Tell. Research Paths. Practice 6.8 Researching a Time. Anatomy of a Memoir. Reading: Antonya Nelson, All Washed Up. Introduction and Setup. Rising Action. Resolution. Practice 6.9 Ending the Story. Reading: Marissa Petrarca (Student), A Crest Side Story. Annotate A Crest Side Story. Readings: David Tankelfsky, Duties of Adulthood. Gary Shteyngart, Sixty-nine Cents. Dave Eggers, From What Is the What: The Autobiography of Valentino Achak Deng, A Novel. Writing in the Works: Interview with Antonya Nelson. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 7. NEWS STORIES: WRITING THE PUBLIC RECORD. Assignment. News Stories. Warm-Up Practice 7.1 Collaborative Exercise. Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Understanding News Stories. Newsworthiness. Practice 7.2 Testing for Newsworthiness. Objectivity. Practice 7.3 Objective Voice in News Blogs. Balance. Visual Literacy: Photojournalism: How a Picture Tells a Story. Visual Literacy: Analyzing Photojournalism. Practice 7.4 Newsworthiness and Balance. Research Paths. Primary Sources. Using Interviews. Using Observation. Using Documents. Secondary Sources. How to Use Quotations. Sidebar: Using Quotations. Practice 7.5 Using Quotations. Anatomy of a News Story. Reading: Jessica Zisko, Search for the New Mascot Halted at San Diego State U. The Lead and the Inverted Pyramid. Practice 7.6 Writing Leads. Angle. Practice 7.7 Finding an Angle. The Body of the Story. Ending the News Story. Practice 7.8 Class Press Conference. Reading: Jeffrey Carson, Cox's Chilling Tales of Stamina Recounted. Annotate Cox's Chilling Tales of Stamina Recounted. Readings: Charles M. Madigan, U.S. Under Attack. Norimitsu Onishi, Thumbs Race as Japan's Best Sellers Go Cellular. Grace Lin (Student), Twenty-five Percent of Students Plagiarize. Writing in the Works: Interview with Grace Lin. Writing and Revising Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 8. EDITORIALS: WRITING ARGUMENTS. Assignment. Editorials. Visual Literacy. Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Arguments. Warm-Up Practice 8.1 Collaborative Activity: Informal Debate. Using Logical Appeals. Using Emotional Appeals. Using Ethical Appeals. Practice 8.2 Identifying Logical, Emotional, and Ethical Appeals. Avoiding Pitfalls in Logic: Fallacies. Circular Argument. Post Hoc Fallacy. Ad Hominem Fallacy. Hasty Generalization. Practice 8.3 Identifying Fallacies. Practice 8.4 Researching Other Fallacies. The Either-Or Fallacy. The Red Herring. Slippery Slope. Apples and Oranges. Bandwagon Appeal. Research Paths. Choosing a Topic for an Opinion Piece. Practice 8.5 Brainstorming for a Topic. Practice 8.6 Narrowing Topics. Narrowing Your Topic. Print, Electronic, and Expert Sources. Sidebar: Evaluating Evidence. Anatomy of an Opinion Piece. Reading: Peter Schmidt, At the Elite CollegesuDim White Kids. An Argumentative Thesis or Claim. Practice 8.7 Crafting a Claim. Introduction. Practice 8.8 Assessing Introductions. Well-Supported Arguments. Acknowledging Opposing Views and Refuting Them. Practice 8.9 Providing Background Information. Practice 8.10 Acknowledging Opposing Views. Conclusion. Reading: Ellen Goodman, Big Brother Meets Big Mother. Annotate Big Brother Meets Big Mother. Readings: David Brooks, Gangsta, in French. Jody Rosen, David Brooks, Playa Hater: The New York Times Columnist Grapples with 'Gangsta Rap.' Caryl Rivers and Rosalind C. Barnett, The Difference Myth. Aaron Rasmussen, Schools Need Weighted Grading. Writing in the Works: Interview with Aaron Rasmussen. Writing and Revising Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 9. PROPOSALS: WRITING FOR YOUR COMMUNITY. Assignment. Proposals. Visual Literacy: How Images Persuade. Warm-Up Practice 9.1 Collaborative Activity. Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Proposal Writing. Identifying a Problem. Practice 9.2 Identifying a Problem for Your Proposal. Formulating a Clear and Feasible Solution. Practice 9.3 Creating Feasible Solutions. Providing Reasons. Practice 9.4 Providing Reasons. Research Paths. Researching Your Audience. Practice 9.5 Researching Your Audience. Researching the Issue: Facts, Statistics, and Studies. Practice 9.6 Generating Research Ideas. Researching the Issue: Anecdotes, Quotations, and Visuals. Anatomy of a Proposal. Reading: Jessica Hollander, Stopping Teen Dating Violence. Introduction: Background and Problem Statement. Practice 9.7 Analyzing Introductions. Body: Solutions. Sidebar: Proposal Design. Conclusion: Benefits. Going Public with Your Proposal: Posting It on the Internet. Consider Audience. Choose Appropriate Material. Multimedia Components. Photography and Video. Screen Shot: Superior Skatepark Blog. Reading: Karen Lee, Foster Parrots Proposal. Annotate Foster Parrots Proposal. Readings: Superior Skatepark Coalition, Waterfront Skatepark Proposal. Dana Benjamin, Johanna Mayhew, Alexandra Mayer-Hohdahl, and Peter Meyers (Students), Proposal to Help End Slavery in Sudan. Garland Waller, Proposal for the Silent Screams: Court-Ordered Abuse of Children. Writing in the Works: Interview with Garland Waller. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 10. PUBLIC SERVICE MESSAGES: WRITING APPEALS. Assignment. Public Service Messages. Warm-Up Practice 10.1 Collaborative Activity. Visual Literacy: The Personality of Words. Practice 10.2 Typography in Video: Do People Want to Read Commercials? Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Public Service Messages. Creating Public Service Material for a Specific Audience. Practice 10.3 Finding your Target PSA Audience. Images in Public Service Advertisements. Analyzing the Visual Images in Print Ads. Text in Public Service Advertisements. Analyzing the Text in Public Service Advertisements. Practice 10.4 How Text and Image Work Together. Sidebar: Poetry and Advertising Copy. Sample Analysis. Using Humor. Practice 10.5 Analyzing Humor. Types of Humor. Practice 10.6 Using Humor. Research Paths. Web Searches. Print Sources. Experts as Sources. Anatomy of a Public Service Message. Headlines and Visual Images: Attract Attention and Generate Interest. Appealing to Hearts and Minds. Body: Provide Reasons. Conclusion: Call for Action. Reading: Iz Yuor Kib Trying to Tel You Sumething? Annotate Iz Your Kib Trying to Tel You Sumthing? Choosing Your Medium. Print Public Service Advertisements. Television Commercials. Practice 10.7 Analyze a Commercial. Sidebar: Lists. Radio Commercials. Practice 10.8 Writing a Radio Commercial. Web Banners. Alternative Media. Practice 10.9 Using Alternative Media. Presenting Your Work: The Pitch Letter. Pitch Letter Tips. Practice 10.10 Write a Pitch Letter. Readings: Mothers Against Drunk Driving, MADD High School Posters. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Think Before You Post. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, The Visitors. Jenna Livingston, Sarah Bomie Chae, Michael Thill, and Alexandria McManus (Students), South Shore Women's Center PSA. Writing in the Works: Interview with Tom Fauls. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 11. WEBSITES: WRITING FOR ELECTRONIC SOURCES. Assignment. Websites. Applications: School, Community, Work. Warm-Up Practice 11.1 Collaborative Activity. Visual Literacy: Analyzing Design and Layout of Webpages. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Websites. Organization of Websites. Write an Outline. Practice 11.2 Create an Outline for a Website. Writing for Websites: Content. Headlines. Inverted Pyramid. Chunking. Practice 11.3 Finding the Most Efficient Organization. Conciseness and Language. Practice 11.4 Identifying Concise Language. Designing Websites. HTML. Layout. Design Elements. Typefaces and Backgrounds. Practice 11.5 Looking at Typeface in a Website. Illustrations, Art, and Photos. Don't Steal Art. Anatomy of a Webpage. The Densho Website: Homepage. The Densho Website: Second Layer. The Densho Website: Third Layer. Reading and Analyzing Websites. Communicating on the Web. Types of Writing for the Web. E-mail and Instant Messages and Social Networking Sites. Messages for a Public Audience. Bulletin Boards. Blogs. Online Review Sites and E-zines. Social Networking Sites. Tips for Communicating on the Web. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 12. FILM REVIEWS: WRITING EVALUATIONS. Assignment. Film Reviews. Applications: School, Community, Work. Practice 12.1 Warm-Up Collaborative Activity. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Film Reviews. Visual Literacy. Framing a Shot. Interpreting Images: Mise En Scene. Analyzing Film Elements. Story Elements. Visual Elements. The Players. Practice 12.2 Identifying Film Elements. Considering the Film's Genre. Practice 12.3 Identifying Film Genres. Considering Voice and Audience. Practice 12.4 Voice and Audience. Research Paths. Watching a Film: Big Screen or Small? Taking Notes. Researching Background and Context. Practice 12.5 Exploring a Website. Anatomy of a Film Review. Reading: A.O. Scott, Persepolis: In a Flat World, a Rebel With a Cause. Introduction. Practice 12.6 Assessing Introductions. Practice 12.7 Identifying Thesis Statements. Thesis. Practice 12.8 Writing Summaries. Brief Plot Summary. Analysis. Acting. Writing. Practice 12.9 Screenwriting. Theme. Cinematography. Editing. Production Design. Soundtrack. Sound Effects. Special Effects. Conclusion. Reading: Manohla Dargis, Little Miss Sunshine: You're Either on the Family Bus, or You're Off. Annotate Little Miss Sunshine: You're Either on the Family Bus, or You're Off. Readings: Janet Maslin, Such a Very Long Way from Duvets to Danger. Roger Ebert, Fight Club. Ryan Conrath (Student), Scorcese Back at Film School, The Departed. Writing in the Works: Interview with Roger Ebert. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 13. PROFILES: WRITING ABOUT OTHERS Assignment. Profiles. Applications: School, Community, Work. Warm-Up Practice 13.1 Collaborative Activity. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Profiles. Profile Elements. Physical Description. Visual Literacy: Analyzing Portraits. Quotations from the Subject. Quotations about the Subject. Examples. Anecdotes. Factual Information. Choosing a Good Profile Subject. Practice 13.2 Identifying Profile Elements. Profile Topics from Student Papers. Sidebar: Using I in a Profile. Finding the Story. Practice 13.3 Choosing a Good Profile Subject. Research Paths. Print and Electronic Sources. Practice 13.4 Search for Sources. Interviews. Sidebar: Access to Sources and Interview Tips. Tips for Good Interviews. Interviewing Secondary Sources. Choosing Good Quotations. Practice 13.5 Choosing Good Quotations. Sidebar: How to Punctuate Quotations. Direct Observation. Practice 13.6 Observing Characters in Action. Anatomy of a Profile. Reading: Judith Newman, Running for Office, Running for Life. The Lead. Practice 13.7 Identifying and Analyzing Types of Leads. The Nut Graf or Interpretive Thesis. Practice 13.8 Identifying The Nut Graf or Interpretive Thesis. The Body of the Profile. Conclusion. Reading: Jack Falla, The Top Drill Instructor in Boot Camp 101. Annotate The Top Drill Instructor in Boot Camp 101. Readings: Stephen Magagnini, Hmong Teen Builds Future in Two Conflicting Worlds. Thanos Matthai (Student), A Fine Balance: The Life of an Islamic Teenager. Susan Orlean, Show Dog. Writing in the Works: Interview with Susan Orlean. Writing and Revising Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. 14. RESEARCH ARTICLES: ANALYZING TRENDS. Assignment. Research Articles. Warm-Up Practice 14.1 Collaborative Activity. Applications: School, Community, Work. Chapter Objectives. Understanding Trends. Identifying Causes and Effects. Practice 14.2 Causes or Effects? Research Paths. Keeping Track of Your Research. Visual Literacy: How Graphs Explain. Brainstorming. Sidebar: Cause and Effect and Logical Thinking. Gathering Material That Proves the Trend Exists. Practice 14.3 Working with Statistics. Where to Research. Library Research. Internet Search Engines and Directories. Sidebar: Reading Statistics with a Critical Eye. Internet Databases. Practice 14.4 Sidebar: A Thousand Lives by Thomas Starr. Interviews. Consulting Experts. Consulting Practitioners. Anatomy of a Trend Analysis. Reading: David Abel, Male Call on Campus: Enrollment Trends Wide Gender Gap, Upset Social Scene. Thesis. Introduction. Expository Introduction. Narrative Introduction. Body. Conclusion. Sidebar: Transitions. Readings: Caitlin Austin, Fraternities of the Future: Dry or Wet? Annotate Fraternities of the Future: Dry or Wet? Readings: Meredith Jeffries, Chasing the Blues Away: Use of Antidepressants Among Teens. Chris Suellentrop, Playing with Our Heads. Kara Jesella, A Hipper Crowd of Shushers. Writing and Revision Strategies. Writer's Notebook Suggestions. Peer-Editing Log. Revision Checklist. Part III: RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION. 15. RESEARCH. Introduction. Chapter Objectives. Brainstorming: Researching to Discover Topics. Primary and Secondary Sources. Narrowing Your Topic and Formulating a Specific Research Question. Worldcat. Infotrac. LexisNexis. Readers' Guide Full Text. ISI Web of Science. ProQuest. Creating a Working Bibliography. Reading with Focus: Taking Useful Notes and Avoiding Plagiarism. Evaluating Your Sources. Authorship. Scholarship. Bias. Currency. The Search. Using Books. How to Find Books on Your Subject. What a Catalog Tells You. Practice 15.1 Reading a Catalog Entry. Practice 15.2 Evaluating a Catalog Entry. Evaluating Books. Using Periodicals: Academic Journals, Trade Journals, and Popular Magazines. Using Newspapers. Using Surveys and Polls. Practice 15.3 Detecting Bias. Using Interviews. Make a Contact List. Get Advance Materials Before the Interview. Set Up the Interview. Prepare for Your Interview. Conduct the Interview. Transcribe Your Notes. Read Your Notes Critically. Sidebar: What Constitutes Plagiarism of Internet Sources? A Guide to Research on the World Wide Web. Using the Web. Understanding a URL. Quick Evaluation of Websites. A Note about Wikis, Blogs, and Message Boards. Finding Information on the Web. Practice 15.4 Searching the Web. Deep Research: Using the Invisible Web. Catalog Sites. Databases. Research Scenario. Practice 15.5 Research Treasure Hunt. Researching in the Real World. Peter Olotka, Game Designer. Dave Metzler, Television Producer and Director. Jean Trounstine, Professor and Writer. Andrew Hosier, Library and Information Science Student. Estelle Belisle, Translator for the Organization of American States. Nancy Schachter, Founder of Jupiter Group, a Design Firm Based in San Francisco and Hong Kong. Robin Pitman, Real Estate Developer and Former Domain Name Mediator. Marie Messenger Davies, Professor of Mass Communication, Cardiff, Wales. 16. DOCUMENTATION. Introduction. Chapter Objectives. Attributing Sources. Avoiding Plagiarism. What to Document. Integrating Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing. Quoting. Sidebar: Using Ellipses, Brackets, and Single Quotation Marks. Paraphrasing. Summarizing. Documentation Guidelines. Overview of MLA Style. Formatting the Manuscript (MLA). Citing Sources in the Text. Placement and Punctuation of Parenthetical Documentation. Creating a Works Cited List. Model of Student Paper in MLA Style: Cassandra Lane, Paper or Bioplastics? Overview of APA Style. Formatting the Manuscript (APA). Citing Sources in the Text. Creating a References Page. Other Sources: Primary, Personal, and Multimedia. Model of Student Paper in APA Style: E in O'Carroll, Unchained Melodies. Part IV: GRAMMAR AND STYLE HANDBOOK. 17. GRAMMAR REFRESHER. 17A Parts of Speech. 17A-1 Nouns. Practice 17.1 Nouns. 17A-2 Pronouns. Practice 17.2 Pronouns. 17A-3 Verbs. Practice 17.3 Verbs. 17A-4 Adjectives. 17A-5 Adverbs. Practice 17.4 Adjectives and Adverbs. 17A-6 Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases. 17A-7 Conjunctions. 17A-8 Interjections and Expletives. Practice 17.5 Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections, and Expletives. Practice 17.6 Parts of Speech. 17B Parts of Sentences. 17B-1 Subjects and Predicates. Practice 17.7 Subjects and Predicates. 17B-2 Complements. Practice 17.8 Complements. 17B-3 Phrases. Practice 17.9 Phrases. 17B-4 Clauses. Practice 17.10 Clauses. Practice 17.11 Phrases and Clauses. 17C Sentence Types. 17C-1 Simple Sentences. 17C-2 Compound Sentences and Coordination. 17C-3 Complex Sentences and Subordination. Practice 17.12 Sentence Types. 18. PUNCTUATION. Proofreading Symbols. Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Marks. Periods. 18B-2 Question Marks. 18B-3 Exclamation Marks. Practice 18.1 Periods, Question Marks, Exclamation Marks. 18C Semicolons and Colons. 18C-1 Semicolons. 18C-2 Colons. Practice 18.2 Semicolons and Colons. 18D Commas, Dashes, and Parentheses. 18D-1 Commas. 18D-2 Dashes. 18D-3 Parentheses. Practice 18.3 Commas, Dashes, and Parentheses. 18E Apostrophes and Hyphens. 18E-1 Apostrophes. 18E-2 Hyphens. Practice 18.4 Apostrophes and Hyphens. 18F Ellipses, Brackets, and Quotation Marks. 18F-1 Ellipses. 18F-2 Brackets. 18F-3 Quotation Marks. Practice 18.5 Quotation Marks and Accompanying Punctuation. 18G Capital Letters, Numbers, and Italics. 18G-1 Capital Letters. 18G-2 Numbers. 18G-3 Italics. Practice 18.6 Capital Letters, Numbers, and Italics. 19. COMMON ERRORS. 19A Sentence Structure Errors. 19A-1 Fragments. 19A-2 Fused Sentences and Comma Splice Errors. Practice 19.1 Fragments, Fused Sentences, and Comma Splice Errors. 19B Agreement Errors. 19B-1 Subject-Verb Agreement. 19B-2 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement. Practice 19.2 Agreement. 19C Pronoun Case Errors. 19C-1 Subject Pronouns. 19C-2 Object Pronouns. 19C-3 Who and Whom/Whoever and Whomever. 19C-4 Possessive Pronouns. Practice 19.3 Pronoun Case. 19D Verb Tense Errors. 19D-1 Verb Tense Progression. Practice 19.4 Verb Tense Progression. 19D-2 Verb Tense Consistency. Practice 19.5 Verb Tense Consistency. 19E Parallelism. Practice 19.6 Parallelism. 19F Modification Errors. 19F-1 Misplaced Modifiers. 19F-2 Dangling Modifiers. Practice 19.7 Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers. 19G Frequently Confused Words. Practice 19.8 Frequently Confused Words. 20. TROUBLE SPOTS FOR NONNATIVE SPEAKERS. 20A Nouns and Articles. 20A-1 Countable and Noncountable Nouns. Practice 20.1 Identifying Countable and Noncountable Nouns. 20A-2 Articles. Practice 20.2 Articles. 20B Verbs and Verbals. 20B-1 Verb Complements. Practice 20.3 Verb Complements. 20B-2 Model Auxiliary Verbs. Practice 20.4 Model Auxiliary Verbs. 20B-3 Phrasal Verbs. Practice 20.5 Phrasal Verbs. 20C Sentence Structure. 20C-1 Basic Sentence Patterns. Practice 20.6 Basic Sentence Patterns. 20C-2 Modifying Sentence Patterns. Practice 20.7 Modifying Sentence Patterns. 20C-3 Reported Questions and Quotations. Practice 20.8 Reported Questions and Quotations. 20D Idioms. 20D-1 Some Common Idioms. 20D-2 Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases. Practice 20.9 Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases. Credits C-1. Index I-1. Common Editing and Proofreading Marks (Inside Back Cover).