Part I: AN INVITATION TO WRITING. 1. Gathering Ideas for Writing. Overview of the Writing Process. Journal Writing. Entry from The Diary of Latoya Hunter. Focused Freewriting. Brainstorming, Clustering, and Outlining. Student Essay. Conducting Interviews and Surveys. Working Together: Taking a Survey. 2. Recognizing the Elements of Good Writing. The Subject: What the Writing Is About. Purpose: The Writer's Intention. Audience: The Writer's Intended Readers. Voice: How the Writer's Attitude is Revealed. Unity: All Parts Relating to the Central Theme. Coherence: Clear and Logical Progression of Thought. Working Together: Knowing Your Audience. Part II: CREATING EFFECTIVE SENTENCES. 3. Finding Subjects and Verbs in Simple Sentences. What Is a Complete Sentence? How Do You Find the Subject of a Sentence? How Do You Find the Verb of a Sentence? How Do You Identify the Parts of Speech? Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Crossword Puzzle. 4. Making Subjects and Verbs Agree. What Is Subject-Verb Agreement? Subject-Verb Agreement with Personal Pronouns. Subject-Verb Agreement with the Verbs Do and Be. Subject-Verb Agreement with Hard-to-Find Subjects. Subject-Verb Agreement with Collective Nouns. Subject-Verb Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns. Subject-Verb Agreement with Compound Subjects. Subject-Verb Agreement with Unusual Nouns. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Focused Freewriting. 5. Understanding Fragments and Phrases. What Is a Fragment? How Do You Correct a Fragment? What Is a Phrase and How Many Kinds of Phrases Are There? The Three Functions of the Present Participle. How Do You Make a Complete Sentence from a Fragment That Contains a Participle? Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Examining an Advertisement for Fragments. 6. Combining Sentences Using Coordination. What Is Coordination? First Option for Coordination: Using a Comma Plus a Coordinating Conjunction. Second Option for Coordination: Using a Semicolon, an Adverbial Conjunction, and a Comma. Third Option for Coordination: Using a Semicolon. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Causes and Effects. 7. Combining Sentences Using Subordination. What Is Subordination? The Difference Between an Independent Clause and a Dependent Clause. Using Subordinating Conjunctions. Using Relative Pronouns. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Narrowing the Topic Through Group Discussion. 8. Correcting Fragments and Run-Ons. What Is a Fragment? How Many Kinds of Fragments Are There? How Do You Make a Complete Sentence from a Fragment? What Is a Run-On? Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Discussion and Summary. 9. Choosing Correct Pronouns. Pronouns and Case. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Discussion and Summary. 10. Working with Adjectives, Adverbs, and Parallel Structure. What Is the Difference Between an Adjective and an Adverb? Adjectives and Adverbs Used in Comparisons. The Most Commonly Confused Adjectives and Adverbs. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. Misplaced Modifiers. Dangling Modifiers. Avoiding the Double Negative with the Adverb not and other Negative Words. Parallel Structure: Making a Series of Words, Phrases, or Clauses Balanced Within the Sentence. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Preparing and Editing a Resume. 11. Mastering Irregular Verb Forms. What Are the Principal Parts of Irregular Verbs? Practicing Fifty Irregular Verbs. More Irregular Verbs. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Preparing for a Job Interview. 12. Using Verb Tenses Correctly. How Many Verb Tenses Are There in English? How Do You Use The Present Perfect and the Past Perfect Tenses? What Is the Sequence of Tenses? Avoiding Unnecessary Shifts in Verb Tense. What Is the Difference Between the Passive Voice and the Active Voice? What Is the Subjunctive Mood? Knowing How to Use should/would, can/could, will/would, and used to/supposed to. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Problem Solving: Integrity in the Workplace. 13. Learning the Rules for Capitalization and Punctuation. Ten Basic Rules of Capitalization. Ten Basic Uses of the Comma. Three Uses for the Apostrophe. Four Uses for Quotation Marks. Three Uses for the Semicolon. Four Uses for the Colon. Use of Dashes and Parentheses. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together. Part III: UNDERSTANDING THE POWER OF WORDS. 14. Choosing Words That Work. Using Words Rich in Meaning. Understanding Loaded Words: Denotation/Connotation. Wordiness: In Writing, Less Can Be More! Recognizing Language Appropriate for Formal Writing. Studying a Student Essay for Word Choices. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Being Tactful in the Workplace. 15. Paying Attention to Look-Alikes and Sound-Alikes. Group I: Words That Sound Alike. Group II: Words That Sound Alike. Group III: Contractions That Sound Like Other Words. Group IV: Words That Sound or Look Almost Alike. Group V: Words That Sound or Look Almost Alike. Group VI: lay/lie, raise/rise, and set/sit. Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together: Examining the Issue of Plagiarism. Part IV: CREATING EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS. 16. Working with Paragraphs: Topic Sentences and Controlling Ideas. What Is a Paragraph? What Is a Topic Sentence? What Is a Controlling Idea? Mastery and Editing Tests. Working Together. 17. Working with Paragraphs: Supporting Details. What Is a Supporting Detail? How Do You Choose Supporting Details? Avoiding Restatement of the Topic Sentence. How Do You Make Supporting Details Specific? Working Together: Peer Editing. 18. Developing Paragraphs: Illustration. What Is Illustration? Where Does the Writer Find Examples? Achieving Coherence. Writing a Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach to Illustration. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Paragraphs Using Illustration. Working Together: Researching Examples. 19. Developing Paragraphs: Narration. What Is Narration? Using Narration to Make a Point. Achieving Coherence. Writing a Narrative Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Paragraphs Using Narration. Working Together: Telling Stories That Make a Point. 20. Developing Paragraphs: Description. What Is Description? Working with Description. Achieving Coherence: Putting Details in Spatial Order. Writing a Descriptive Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Descriptive Paragraphs. Working Together: Description. 21. Developing Paragraphs: Process Analysis. What Is Process Analysis? Making Sure All the Steps Are Included. Achieving Coherence. Writing a Process Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Process Paragraphs. Working Together: Process: Building a Team. 22. Developing Paragraphs: Comparison/Contrast. What Is Comparison/Contrast? Choosing a Two-Part Topic. Achieving Coherence: Two Approaches to Ordering Material. Achieving Coherence: Using Transitions. Writing a Comparison/Contrast Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Comparison or Contrast Paragraphs. Working Together: Contrast. 23. Developing Paragraphs: Cause and Effect. What Is Cause and Effect? Recognizing Terms That Signal Cause and Effect. Avoiding Errors in Logic. Achieving Coherence: Using Transitions. Writing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Cause-and-Effect Paragraphs. Working Together: Looking at Immediate and Long-Term Effects. 24. Developing Paragraphs: Definition and Analysis. What Is Definition? Defining by Negation. Defining with Examples. Defining with Analysis or Extended Definition. Writing a Definition Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Definition Paragraphs. Working Together: Definition. 25. Developing Paragraphs: Classification. What Is Classification? Finding the Basis for Classification. Making Distinct Categories. Making the Classification Complete. Making Sure the Classification Has a Useful Purpose. Achieving Coherence. Writing a Classification Paragraph Using a Step-by-Step Approach. Studying Model Paragraphs to Create Classification Paragraphs. Working Together: Classification. Part V: STRUCTURING THE COLLEGE ESSAY. 26. Moving from the Paragraph to the Essay. What Is a College Essay? What Is a Thesis Statement? Creating an Effective Thesis Statement. Writing an Effective Introductory Paragraph. Achieving Coherence. Writing an Effective Concluding Paragraph. A Note About Titles. Working Together: Planning the Parts of an Essay. 27. Following the Progress of a Student Essay. The Assignment: Description of a School Experience. Step 1: Using Prewriting Techniques to Explore What You Know About the Topic. Step 2: Finding the Controlling Idea for the Thesis Statement. Step 3: Deciding on the Topic Sentences for Three or More Body Paragraphs. Step 4: Writing the Introductory Paragraph. Step 5: Studying the Student Essay for Paragraph Development. Step 6: Putting the Draft into Essay form with a Concluding Paragraph. Step 7: Revising the Draft Using Peer Evaluation. Step 8: Proofreading the Final Essay for Errors and Omissions. Working Together: Peer Editing. 28. Writing an Essay Using Examples, Illustrations, or Anecdotes. Exploring the Topic: Living with a Disability. Reading a Model Essay with Examples, Illustrations, or Anecdotes. Writing an Essay Using Examples, Illustrations, or Anecdotes. Working Together: Brainstorming for Examples. 29. Writing an Essay Using Narration. Exploring the Topic: A Lasting Childhood Memory. Reading a Model Essay with Narrative Elements. Writing an Essay Using Narration. Working Together: Sharing Our Narratives. 30. Writing an Essay Using Process Analysis. Exploring the Topic: Preparing for a Job Interview. Reading a Model Essay with Steps in a Process. Writing an Essay Using Process Analysis (How to?.?.?.). Working Together: Deciding on a Logical Order. 31. Writing an Essay Using Comparison/Contrast. Exploring the Topic: Men and Women Look at Beauty. Reading a Model Essay That Uses Comparison/Contrast. Writing an Essay Using Comparison/Contrast. Working Together: Contrasting Men and Women. 32. Writing an Essay Using Persuasion. What Is Persuasion? Working Together: Analyzing a Newspaper Editorial. 33. Other College Writing: The Research Paper and the Essay Exam. How to Write and Document A Research Paper. How to Take An Essay Exam: Writing Well Under Pressure. Working Together: Incorporating Sources. Part VI: SUMMARIZING SHORT TEXTS ACROSS THE DISCIPLINES. Part VII: FURTHER READINGS FOR THE COLLEGE WRITER. Strategies for the Active Reader. Narration. Description. Example/Illustration. Process. Comparison/Contrast. Cause and Effect. Definition and Analysis. Classification. Argumentation/Persuasion. APPENDICES. A. Reference Guide for the ESOL Student. Using the Articles a, an, and the. English Word Order. The Idiomatic Use of Prepositions. Special Problems with English Verbs. ESOL Word Confusions. Other ESOL Concerns Addressed in The Writer's Workplace. B. Parts of Speech. C. Irregular Verbs. D. Spelling. Forming the Plurals of Nouns. Adding Endings to Words Ending in y. Learning to Spell ie or ei Words. When Should the Final Consonant of a Word Be Doubled? Is It One Word or Two? Spelling Commonly Mispronounced Words. Spelling Two Hundred Tough Words. E. Transitions. Rhetorical Table of Contents. Answer Key to Practices and Selected Exercises.
Sandra Scarry is the former Academic Coordinator of the COPE program (College Opportunity to Prepare for Employment) at The City University of New York. She came to that position after many years of classroom teaching in English and ESOL. She has published numerous textbooks in the areas of grammar and writing. John Scarry holds a Ph.D. from New York University and was the senior professor in the English Department of Hostos Community College, The City University of New York. He has been publishing writing textbooks for thirty-five years and his scholarly articles have appeared in many journals here and abroad.
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