Foreword Elaine Fletcher-Janzen xiii Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Overview 1 What is Working Memory? 2 Working Memory versus Short-Term Memory 3 Controversies Surrounding Working Memory 4 Working Memory Measurement 5 Compatibility with Response-to-Intervention 6 Interventions for Working Memory 7 Learning Objectives 8 CHAPTER 2 Theories and Models of Working Memory 10 Information Processing Model 11 The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model 12 Levels-of-Processing Model 14 Baddeley?s Model 14 Contributions from Daneman and Carpenter 26 Kane and Engle?s Executive Attention Model 27 Cowan?s Embedded-Process Model 29 Oberauer?s Facet Theory 32 Long-Term Working Memory 33 Neuropsychological Evidence 35 The Controversy Over Working Memory Capacity 40 CHAPTER 3 An Integrated Model of Working Memory 49 The Structure of the Integrated Model 50 Definition of Working Memory 57 Descriptions of Memory Components 58 Capacity of Working Memory Operations 60 Caveat 61 Key Points 62 CHAPTER 4 Working Memory Development and Related Cognitive Processes 63 Development of Working Memory Capacity 64 Long-Term Memory 71 Expertise and Automatization 76 Deficit Models 76 Relations with Other Cognitive Processes 77 Disorders and Conditions with Working Memory Deficits 86 Conclusions and Implications 90 CHAPTER 5 Working Memory and Academic Learning 92 Working Memory and Learning Disabilities 95 Working Memory and Oral Language 97 Oral Language Disabilities 99 Working Memory and Reading 100 Working Memory and Mathematics 112 Working Memory and Written Language 120 Implications for Assessment, Instruction, and Intervention 121 CHAPTER 6 Working Memory Assessment Strategies 126 Working Memory Assessment Challenges 128 Distinguishing Between Short-Term and Working Memory Measures 131 Short-Term and Working Memory Testing Paradigms 132 Hypothesis-Driven Assessment of Working Memory 140 Multimethod Assessment of Working Memory 145 Reviewing Records for History 145 Interviews 146 Observations 149 Cross-Battery and Selective Testing 151 Assessment Recommendations for Specific Disabilities 155 General Guidelines for Interpreting Test Scores 156 Analysis of Working Memory Test Scores 161 Interpretation of Working Memory Assessment Results 168 The Use of Nonstandardized Working Memory Measures 173 Key Points 174 CHAPTER 7 Using Cognitive Scales to Assess Working Memory 176 Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory and Working Memory 176 General Guidelines for Selecting Working Memory Subtests 178 General Guidelines for Administering Working Memory Subtests 179 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB5) 180 Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II) 183 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (KABC-II) 187 Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) 191 Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) 195 Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) 199 The Wechsler Scales 201 WISC-IV Integrated 203 The NEPSY-II: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment 212 Key Points 215 CHAPTER 8 Assessing Working Memory with Memory Scales 217 Wechsler Memory Scales-Third Edition (WMS-III) 218 Children?s Memory Scale (CMS) 226 Test of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (TOMAL-2) 230 Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (WRAML-2) 234 Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C) 238 Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA) 243 Swanson Cognitive Processing Test (S-CPT) 246 Key Points 253 CHAPTER 9 Working Memory Interventions 258 General Approaches to Working Memory Interventions 260 General Strategy Training Procedures 262 Metacognitive Training 267 Metamemory Training 268 Working Memory Interventions 269 Mnemonics 280 Long-Term Memory Interventions 286 Phonological Processing Interventions 290 Reading Comprehension Strategies 292 Academic Skills and Automaticity 295 Working Memory Training in Children with ADHD 295 Medication 295 Computerized Working Memory Training 296 Classroom Instruction that Supports Working Memory 297 Key Points 305 CHAPTER 10 Case Studies, Reporting Results, and Recommendations 307 Applied Research Study 307 Case Studies 311 Written Interpretation of Working Memory Test Results 317 Illustrative Report 318 Oral Interpretation of Working Memory Test Results 323 Recommendations for Future Working Memory Tests 326 Appendix A Working Memory Subtests in Cognitive Scales 329 Appendix B Working Memory Assessment Plan 333 Appendix C Working Memory Analysis Worksheet 335 Appendix D Working Memory Interpretative Summary 337 Appendix E Working Memory Subtests in Memory Scales 339 Appendix F Conversion Table: Scaled Scores to Standard Scores 343 Appendix G Related Processing Subtests in Cognitive Scales 345 References 347 Index 371
Milton J. Dehn, EdD, NCSP, is the cofounder andProgram Director of Schoolhouse Tutoring (R), an agency that provides assessment, tutoring, and instructional support forstudents of all ages and abilities. He is also author of Essentials of Processing Assessment (Wiley).
"?it is a gold mine of useful and interesting information for anyone who works with children experiencing academic difficulties, including specific learning disabilities involving oral language, reading and mathematics. Working Memory presents a good summary of current models of working memory and its relationship to other cognitive systems, including long-term memory." (PsycCRITIQUES, February 18th, 2009)