Introduction 1. Tools and Materials Pencil Drawing Pen Drawing Paper 2. Drawing Techniques Basic Guidelines Pencil Techniques Pen Techniques Loose Drawings Versus Tight Using a Grid to Enlarge, Reduce, or Copy Transferring a Composition Drawing 3. Perspective Drawing One-Point Perspective Foreshortening Two-Point Perspective 4. Songbirds Basic Structure Composition Drawings Drawing Different Poses Drawing Specific Birds A Wood Thrush Drawn Three Ways Drawing Flickers Drawing Wrens Drawing Robins Action and Foreground Interest Feathers 5. Trees Basic Structure Drawing Elms Pen Sketch of a Black Locust Isolated Trees as Sketch Subjects Silhouettes of Trees Leaves and Branches Tree Trunks and Stumps Quick Impression Sketches Drawing Evergreen Trees The Aerial Perspective Effect: Drawing Distance Background Trees Bark Decorative Tree Parts 6. Animals Basic Animal Structure Sketching a Raccoon Drawing Animals With Similar Shapes Fur Drawing Cats Sketching a Chipmunk Sketching Deer Sketching Bears Drawing Dogs 7. Flowers The Structure Problem Sketching an Iris Blossom Sketching a Trillium Drawing a Wood Lily Sketching a Jack-in-the-Pulpit Many-Petalled Flowers Drawing a Buttercup Drawing Goldenrod and Queen Anne's Lace Tiny, Simplified Plant Sketches Sketching Dried Flowers Silhouettes of Flowers and Plants When to Show Detail and When to Just Suggest It 8. Mushrooms The Many Shapes of Mushrooms A Decorative Grouping of Mushrooms Using Ink Wash over Ink Lines 9. Water Birds Basic Approach--Structure of Ducks Sketching Sandpipers The Ruffed Grouse Sketching Herons 10. Reptiles and Amphibians Sketching Snakes Sketching Frogs Drawing Turtles and Salamanders In Summary Bibliography Index
Detroit-based industrial electronics engineer, Frank Lohan turned his lifelong interest in sketching and painting to teaching adult classes in art.