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Web Services Platform Architecture


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Table of Contents

Foreword by Steve Mills.Foreword by Ronald Schmelzer.Preface.Acknowledgments.About the Authors.I. INTRODUCTION.1. Service-Oriented Architectures. Virtual Enterprises. Business Process Optimization. Collaborations, Mergers, and Acquisitions. Resource Sharing. The Need for Loose Coupling. Issues with Current Distributed System Technologies. Advantages of Message-Oriented Middleware. Future Proofing. What Is a Service? Evolution of Major Software Granules. The Software Version of a Service. Service-Oriented Architecture. Bind/Publish/Find. Framework for SOA. Summary.2. Background. XML. XML Basics. DTDs, XML Schema, and RelaxNG. XML Namespaces. World Wide Web. URIs. HTTP. MIME. Summary.3. Web Services: A Realization of SOA. Scope of the Architecture. Transport Services. Messaging Services. SOAP. WS-Addressing. Service Description. WSDL. Policy. Discovery Services. UDDI. MetaData Exchange. Quality of Service. WS-Security. Reliable Messaging. Transactions. Service Components. Composition of Web Services. Composeability. Interoperability. WS-I. REST. "Representational" in REST. "State Transfer" in REST. REST Interface Structure. REST and Web Services. Scope of Applicability of SOA and Web Service. Summary.II. MESSAGING FRAMEWORK.4. SOAP. A Brief History of SOAP. Architectural Concepts. Defining Some Terms. The SOAP Processing Model. SOAP Roles. SOAP Faults. Documents and RPC. Message Exchange Patterns. SOAP Bindings. SOAP Attachments. Differences Between SOAP 1.1 and 1.2. Summary.5. Web Services Addressing. Addressing Web Services. Architectural Concepts. Endpoint References. Comparing Endpoints. Message Information Headers. Binding Endpoint References to SOAP Messages. Request-Reply Pattern in WS-Addressing. Example. Future Directions. Summary.III. DESCRIBING METADATA.6. Web Services Description Language (WSDL). Role of WSDL in WS-*/SOA. History. Architectural Concepts. Extensibility. Support for Multiple Type Systems. Unifying Messaging and RPC. Separation of "What" from "How" and "Where". Support for Multiple Protocols and Transports. No Ordering. No Semantics. WSDL 1.1. Language Structure. Best Practices. Problems and Limitations. WSDL v2.0. Overall Language Structure. Interface Extensions. Elimination of . Message Exchange Patterns. Services. Features and Properties. Future Directions. Summary.7. Web Services Policy. Motivation for WS-Policy. Architectural Concepts. Policy Framework. Attaching Policies to Web Services. Future Directions. Summary.IV. DISCOVERING METADATA.8. Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI). Role of UDDI in SOA and the WS Stack. Use of UDDI During Design and Development. Use of UDDI at Runtime. Motivation for UDDI. Architectural Concepts. UDDI V3 Data Model. UDDI and WSDL. UDDI and WS-Policy. UDDI V3 Architecture and APIs. New Features in UDDI V3. Future Directions. Standardization of Taxonomy Language. Semantic Searching. Instance-Based Security. Summary.9. Web Services Metadata Exchange. Architectural Concepts. Extensibility of Metadata Dialects. Use of Indirection: Metadata References and Locations. Metadata Request Operations. Default Protocol Binding. Future Directions. Summary.V. RELIABLE INTERACTION.10. Reliable Messaging. Motivation for Reliable Messaging. The Network Is Reliable. Latency Is Zero. There Is One Administrator. Reliable Messaging Scenarios. Store and Forward. Batch Window. Failure Recovery. Long-Running Transactions. Architectural Concepts. Processing Model. Sequence Lifecycle. Basic Syntax. Sequence Element. SequenceAcknowledgement Element. AckRequested Element. SequenceFault Element. Delivery Semantics Supported. Policy Assertions. Inactivity Timeout. Retransmission Interval. Acknowledgement Interval. Basic WS-Reliable Messaging Profile. Strengths and Weaknesses. Examples. Future Directions. Summary.11. Transactions. Role of Transactions in Web Services/SOA. Motivation for Transactions. Classic Transactions. Business Transactions. Architectural Concepts. Definition of Transaction Architectural Terms. Services and Protocols. Example. Travel Agent Scenario Using Atomic Transaction. Travel Agent Scenario Using Business Activity. Summary.VI. SECURITY.12. Security. A Motivating Example: Travel Agent Web Services. Roles of Security in Web Services. Motivation for Using WS-Security. End-to-End Security When Intermediaries Are Present. Federating Multiple Security Domains. A Brief History. Architectural Concepts. Processing Model. XML Signature. XML Encryption. Putting the Pieces Together. The Basic Model. Model with Intermediary. Trust Relationships. Interoperability. Basic Security Profile. Future Directions. Summary.13. Advanced Security. WS-Trust. In-Band. Out-of-Band. WS-SecureConversation. WS-Privacy. WS-Federation. WS-Authorization. Web Services Authorization Model. Security and Policy. Assertion Model. Other Security Topics. Public-Key Cryptography. Non-Repudiation. Data Integrity and Data-Origin Authentication. Proof of Message Origin. Proof of Message Receipt. Delivery of Proof of Message Receipt. Summary.VII. SERVICE COMPOSITION.14. Modeling Business Processes: BPEL. Motivation for BPEL. A Brief History. Architectural Concepts. Overview of the Process Composition Model. Abstract and Executable Processes. Recursive, Type-Based Composition. Process Instance Lifecycle. Event Handling. Dealing with Exceptional Behavior. Extensibility and the Role of Web Services Policies. BPEL Processing Model. Deployment. Interacting with the Process. Navigating the Process Model. Scopes and Handlers. Future Directions. Summary.VII. CASE STUDIES.15. Case Study: Car Parts Supply Chain. Scenario Description. Architecture. Web Service Descriptions. Messages and Protocols. Summary.16. Case Study: Ordering Service Packs. Scenario Description. Architecture. Web Service Descriptions. Messages and Protocols. Summary.IX. CONCLUSION.17. Futures. Semantics. Wiring. Ordering Constraints. Contracting. Summary.18. Conclusion. A Summary of the Web Services Platform. Standardization. Concerns About the Standardization Process. Competing Specifications. Perspectives. Why Will It Succeed? Risks. Building on the Core Platform. Summary.References.Index.

About the Author

This book was a team effort by the folks at IBM who have been working on designing and building the Web services platform. The lead authors of this book--Sanjiva, Francisco (Paco), Frank, Tony, and Don--wrote parts of the book and coordinated contributions from the others. We'll start with descriptions of the five lead authors and then talk about the others who contributed. Sanjiva Weerawarana received a Ph.D. in computer science from Purdue University in 1994. After a few years at Purdue as visiting faculty, he joined IBM Research in 1997, where he is a research staff member in the Component Systems Group and a member of the IBM Academy of Technology. Sanjiva's research interests are in component-oriented programming in general and specifically about component-oriented distributed computing architectures. He got involved with the Web services stack early by contributing to SOAP 1.1 and then by building the first implementation of it, which was later released to the Apache Software Foundation to start the Apache SOAP open source project. After that, Sanjiva cocreated WSDL (with Paco) and coauthored many Web services specifications, including WS-Addressing, WS-MetadataExchange, BPEL4WS, and WS-Resource Framework. In addition to developing specifications, Sanjiva has implemented many of them, in addition to technologies that are related to Web services, including Apache WSIF and the Web Services Gateway. He has been an active contributor to IBM's technical strategy for Web services and has helped coordinate IBM's Web services activities for the past five years. After Web services, Sanjiva's second love is open source, where he's a member of the Apache Software Foundation and the cofounder of the Lanka Software Foundation, an open source foundation in Sri Lanka. In his leisure time, he teaches at the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, where he lives and telecommutes to his job in New York. Francisco Curbera is a research staff member and manager of the Component Systems Group at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Hawthorne, New York, where he has worked since 1993. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Columbia University. His current research interests are in the use of component-oriented software in distributed computing system. In the past, he has worked in the design of algorithms and tools for processing XML documents, and in the use of markup languages for automatic UI generation. He has worked in different Web services specifications since the initial Web services concept surfaced in late 1999, first as one of the original authors of the Apache SOAP implementation of SOAP 1.1, and then as coauthor of WSDL 1.1, BPEL4WS, WS-Policy, and WS-PolicyAttachments, WS-Addressing, WS-MetadataExchange, and other Web services specifications. He currently represents IBM in the Web Services Addressing working group, standardizing WS-Addressing at the W3C, and in the Web Services Business Process technical committee standardizing BPEL4WS at OASIS. Frank Leymann is a professor of computer science and the director of the Institute of Architecture of Application Systems at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. His research interests include service-oriented computing, workflow and business process management, transaction processing, and architecture patterns. Before taking over as a professor, Frank worked for two decades at IBM Software Group in the development of database and middleware products. During that time, he built tools that support conceptual and physical database design for DB2, as well as performance prediction and monitoring, co-architected a repository system, built both a universal relation system and a complex object database system on top of DB2, and was coarchitect of the MQSeries family. In parallel to that, Frank has worked continuously since the late 1980s on workflow technology and has become the father of IBM's workflow product set. As an IBM Distinguished Engineer and elected member of the IBM Academy of Technology, he has contributed to the architecture and strategy of IBM's middleware stack and IBM's on-demand computing strategy. From 2000 on, Frank worked as coarchitect of the Web service stack. He is coauthor of many Web service specifications, including WSFL, WS-Addressing, WS-Metadata Exchange, WS-Business Activity, and the WS-Resource Framework set of specifications. Together with Satish Thatte, he was the driving force behind BPEL4WS. Frank has published many papers in journals and proceedings, co-authored two other text books, and holds numerous patents. Tony Storey is an IBM Fellow, Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, and Fellow of the Institute of Electrical Engineering. He graduated from the Royal Institute of Chemistry and received his doctorate from the University of Durham. Tony joined IBM at the UK Scientific Centre and spent some years there in pioneering work on relational database technology. Subsequently, he has worked for more than two decades in the IBM development laboratory at Hursley, engaged in the development of distributed computing and middleware. He has played a leading role in the creation and development of many of IBM's world-leading middleware products, such as Customer Information Control System (CICS) and MQSeries. He was a key contributor to the development of Java specifications and technology for use in enterprise computing environments for which he earned a corporate award. Tony has most recently helped develop Web services and Grid computing within IBM and more broadly across the industry. He is a coauthor of many Web services specifications, in particular the transaction and messaging specifications. He is actively involved in providing guidance to the UK e-Science strategy that leverages a significant portion of the Web services infrastructure covered in this book. Prior to joining IBM, he worked in the development of Real Time computing systems for military applications. Donald F. Ferguson is one of approximately 55 IBM Fellows, the company's highest technical position, in its engineering community of 190,000 technical professionals. He is the chief architect and technical lead for IBM's Software Group family of products, and he chairs the SWG Architecture Board. Don's most recent efforts have focused on Web services, business process management, Grid services, and application development. He earned a Ph.D. in computer science from Columbia University in 1989. His thesis studied the application of economic models to the management of system resources in distributed systems. Don joined IBM Research in 1987 and initially led research and advanced development efforts in several areas of system performance and management. Starting in 1993, Don started focusing his efforts in the area of distributed, Object-Oriented systems. This work focused on CORBA-based SM solutions and frameworks and evolved into an effort to define frameworks and system structure for CORBA-based object transaction monitors. The early design and prototype of these systems produced the IBM Component Broker and WebSphere family of products. Don has earned two corporate awards (EJB Specification, WebSphere), four outstanding technical awards, and several division awards at IBM. He was the coprogram committee chairman for the First International Conference on Information and Computation Economies. He received a best paper award for his work on database buffer pools, has written more than 24 technical publications, and has nine granted or pending patents. In addition, he has given approximately 15 invited keynote speeches at technical conferences. Don was elected to the IBM Academy of Technology in 1997 and was named a Distinguished Engineer on April Fool's Day, 1998. No one is sure if the joke was on IBM or Don. Don was named an IBM Fellow on May 30, 2001. A team of 10 other writers coauthored specific chapters whose underlying technology they helped create. We provide their bios in alphabetical order here. John Colgrave is a senior software engineer based in IBM's Hursley Laboratory in the United Kingdom. He has a B.S. degree in electrical and electronic engineering and an M.S. degree in computer science. Both degrees are from Manchester University. John has 20 years of experience in the architecture, design, and development of distributed systems and middleware. He is an active member of the OASIS UDDI Specification Technical Committee. He has authored several technical notes and contributed to the main UDDI specification. He is the architect of the IBM implementation of UDDI Version 3. Christopher Ferris is a senior technical staff member in IBM's Standards Strategy group. He has been involved in the architecture, design, and engineering of distributed systems for most of his 25-year career in IT and has been actively engaged in open standards development for XML and Web services since 1999. Chris currently chairs the WS-I Basic Profile Working Group, which is responsible for the development of the WS-I Basic Profile, and is an elected member of the OASIS Technical Advisory Board. He is a coauthor and editor of the WS-Reliable Messaging specification. Prior to joining IBM, Chris served as chair of the W3C Web Services Architecture Working Group and as a member of the W3C XML Protocols Working Group. Thomas Freund, coauthor of Chapter 11, "Transactions," is a senior technical staff member in the Emerging Technology group at IBM. He has worked extensively in the areas of transaction systems and Web services and has participated in the development of standards for OMG, Java, and Web Services. These specifications include the OMG/Object Transaction Service, the J2EE/Java Transaction Service, and Web Service's WS-Coordination, WS-AtomicTransaction, and WS-BusinessActivity. Maryann Hondo, co-author of Chapter 7, "Web Services Policy," is a senior technical staff member at IBM, having joined IBM/Lotus in 1996. Her previous background includes work for HP on DCE- and PKI-based Single SignOn, for Digital on a B1/CMW operating system, and for AT&T Bell Labs on B2 UNIX. Currently, she is the security architect for emerging technology at IBM, concentrating on XML security. Maryann is one of the coauthors of the WS-Security, Policy, Trust, and Secure Conversation specifications announced by IBM and other business partners. Before joining the emerging technology group, she managed the IBM Tivoli Jonah team (IETF PKIX reference implementation) and was security architect for Lotus e-Suite, participating in the development of Java Security (JAAS). John Ibbotson is a member of the Emerging Technology Services group based at the Hursley Development Laboratory near Winchester in the UK. He is the IBM prime representative on the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) XML Protocol Working Group that is standardizing SOAP, a key component of the Web services architecture. He is also a coauthor of the WS-ReliableMessaging specification. Earlier in his career, John developed scientific image-processing systems and digital libraries. John is a Chartered Engineer and Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEEE). Rania Khalaf is a software engineer in the Component Systems group at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. She received her bachelor's and master's degrees in computer science and electrical engineering from MIT in 2000 and 2001. Rania is a codeveloper and coarchitect of the IBM BPEL4WS prototype implementation (BPWS4J). She is an active member of the OASIS WS-BPEL Technical Committee standardizing BPEL. She has published numerous papers in the field and has served on the program committees of conferences and workshops. Rania is currently pursuing her Ph.D. studies under Professor Dr. Frank Leymann with the University of Stuttgart. Dieter Konig is a software architect for workflow systems at the IBM Germany Development Laboratory. He joined the laboratory in 1988 and has worked at the Resource Measurement Facility for z/OS, MQSeries Workflow, and WebSphere Process Choreographer. Dieter is a member of the OASIS WS-BPEL Technical Committee, which is working toward an industry standard for Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL). He holds a master's degree (Diploma in Informatics) in computer science from the University of Bonn, Germany. Hiroshi Maruyama is a Distinguished Engineer at the IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory, Japan. In 1997, his team developed XML Parser for Java, one of the first fully compliant XML processors. Since then, he has worked on XML and Web Services. In particular, he has focused on the security aspects of these technologies, such as XML Signature, XML Encryption, and "WS-Security standards." He wrote XML and Java: Developing Web Applications, published by Addison-Wesley. He is one of the coauthors of WS-Security standards. He has a master's degree from Tokyo Institute of Technology and a Ph. D. in computer science from Kyoto University. Anthony Nadalin is a Distinguished Engineer and the chief security architect who is responsible for security infrastructure design and development across IBM SWG and Tivoli. Anthony serves as the primary security liaison to Sun Microsystems' JavaSoft division for Java security design and development collaboration. In his 23-year career with IBM, he has held the following positions: lead security architect for VM/SP, security architect for AS/400, and security architect for OS/2. Anthony has also authored and coauthored more than 30 technical journal and conference articles and two books. Anthony has been on the technical committee of three major scientific journals and one conference, and has reviewed extensively work that peers in the field have published. Chris Sharp is a senior technical staff member working on Web services specifications and standards in IBM's Software Group, based in the IBM Hursley Laboratory in the United Kingdom. Chris is also a member of the IBM Academy of Technology. He joined IBM in 1990 as a graduate of computer science and has worked in the field of integration and Internet standards since 1994. He worked extensively on the development of IBM's integration middleware and exploitation of Internet standards. Chris is the editor of the WS-PolicyAttachment specification, coauthor of the WS-Policy specification, and contributor to WS-Addressing, WS-MetadataExchange, and the WS-ResourceFramework specifications. Chris is a Fellow of the British Computer Society. A(c) Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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