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Water Resources Engineering
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Table of Contents

About the Author iii Acknowledgments v Preface vi Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 The World's Freshwater Resources 10 1.3 Water Use in the United States 14 1.4 Systems of Units 16 1.5 The Future of Water Resources 18 1.6 Water-Energy Nexus 19 Chapter 2 Water Resources Sustainability 25 2.1 What is Water Resources Sustainability? 25 2.2 Challenges to Water Resources Sustainability 28 2.3 Surface Water System-The Colorado River Basin 48 2.4 Groundwater Systems-The Edwards Aquifer, Texas 53 2.5 Water Budgets 57 2.6 Examples of Water Resources Unsustainability 63 Chapter 3 Hydraulic Processes: Flow and Hydrostatic Forces 73 3.1 Principles 73 3.2 Control Volume Approach for Hydrosystems 80 3.3 Continuity 82 3.4 Energy 84 3.5 Momentum 88 3.6 Pressure and Pressure Forces in Static Fluids 89 3.7 Velocity Distribution 94 Chapter 4 Hydraulic Processes: Pressurized Pipe Flow 99 4.1 Classification of Flow 99 4.2 Pressurized (Pipe) Flow 102 4.3 Headlosses 106 4.4 Forces in Pipe Flow 116 4.5 Pipe Flow in Simple Networks 119 Chapter 5 Hydraulic Processes: Open-Channel Flow 127 5.1 Steady Uniform Flow 127 5.2 Specific Energy, Momentum, and Specific Force 138 5.3 Steady, Gradually Varied Flow 148 5.4 Gradually Varied Flow for Natural Channels 155 5.5 Rapidly Varied Flow 166 5.6 Discharge Measurement 172 Chapter 6 Hydraulic Processes: Groundwater Flow 183 6.1 Groundwater Concepts 183 6.2 Saturated Flow 191 6.3 Steady-State One-Dimensional Flow 196 6.4 Steady-State Well Hydraulics 199 6.5 Transient Well Hydraulics-Confined Conditions 205 6.6 Transient Well Hydraulics-Unconfined Conditions 215 6.7 Transient Well Hydraulics-Leaky Aquifer Conditions 216 6.8 Boundary Effects: Image Well Theory 217 6.9 Simulation of Groundwater Systems 225 Chapter 7 Hydrologic Processes 233 7.1 Introduction to Hydrology 233 7.2 Precipitation (Rainfall) 243 7.3 Evaporation 269 7.4 Infiltration 277 Chapter 8 Surface Runoff 291 8.1 Drainage Basins and Storm Hydrographs 291 8.2 Hydrologic Losses, Rainfall Excess, and Hydrograph Components 295 8.3 Rainfall-Runoff Analysis Using Unit Hydrograph Approach 299 8.4 Synthetic Unit Hydrographs 302 8.5 S-Hydrographs 307 8.6 NRCS (SCS) Rainfall-Runoff Relation 309 8.7 Curve Number Estimation and Abstractions 311 8.8 NRCS (SCS) Unit Hydrograph Procedure 318 8.9 Kinematic-Wave Overland Flow Runoff Model 322 8.10 Computer Models for Rainfall-Runoff Analysis 328 Chapter 9 Reservoir and Stream Flow Routing 333 9.1 Routing 333 9.2 Hydrologic Reservoir Routing 334 9.3 Hydrologic River Routing 338 9.4 Hydraulic (Distributed) Routing 342 9.5 Kinematic Wave Model for Channels 348 9.6 Muskingum-Cunge Model 353 9.7 Implicit Dynamic Wave Model 354 Chapter 10 Probability, Risk, and Uncertainty Analysis for Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design 361 10.1 Probability Concepts 361 10.2 Commonly Used Probability Distributions 364 10.3 Hydrologic Design for Water Excess Management 367 10.4 Hydrologic Frequency Analysis 373 10.5 U.S. Water Resources Council Guidelines for Flood Flow Frequency Analysis 379 10.6 Analysis of Uncertainties 384 10.7 Risk Analysis: Composite Hydrologic and Hydraulic Risk 387 10.8 Computer Models for Flood flow Frequency Analysis 393 Chapter 11 Water Distribution 397 11.1 Introduction 397 11.2 System Components 409 11.3 System Configuration and Operation 426 11.4 Hydraulics of Simple Networks 429 11.5 Pump Systems Analysis 433 11.6 Network Simulation 448 11.7 Modeling Water Distribution Systems 459 11.8 Hydraulic Transients 461 Chapter 12 Storm water Control: Storm Sewers and Detention 481 12.1 Storm water Management 481 12.2 Storm Sewer Systems 482 12.3 Storm water Drainage Channels 509 12.4 Storm water Detention 517 Chapter 13 Storm water Control: Street and Highway Drainage and Culverts 541 13.1 Drainage of Street and Highway Pavements 541 13.2 Hydraulic Design of Culverts 563 Chapter 14 Design of Spillways and Energy Dissipation for Flood Control Storage and Conveyance Systems 581 14.1 Hydrologic Considerations 581 14.2 Dams 582 14.3 Spillways 593 14.4 Hydraulic-Jump-Type Stilling Basins and Energy Dissipators 616 Chapter 15 Sedimentation and Erosion Hydraulics 637 15.0 Introduction 637 15.1 Properties of Sediment 639 15.2 Bed Forms and Flow Resistance 647 15.3 Sediment Transport 652 15.4 Bed Load Formulas 658 15.5 Suspended Load 663 15.6 Total Sediment Load (Bed Material Load Formulas) 666 15.7 Bridge Scour 674 Supplemental Chapter 15 section 15.8 (Watershed sediment Yield), 15.9 (Reservoir Sedimentation) and 15.10 (Stream Stability at Highway Structures) are available to Instructors for Distribution 15-1 Chapter 16 Water Resources Management for Sustainability 679 16.1 Integrated Water Resources Management for Sustainability 679 16.2 Water Law: Surface and Groundwater Management Aspects 682 16.3 Sustainable Water Supply Methodologies for Arid and Semi-Arid Regions 688 16.4 Water Resources Economics 701 16.5 Water Resource Systems Analysis 708 16.6 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 714 16.7 Water-Wise Cities in the Future 717 Chapter 17 Water Withdrawals and Uses (Supplemental Chapter Available to Instructors for Distribution) 17-1 Chapter 18 Water for Hydroelectric Generation (Supplemental Chapter Available to Instructors for Distribution) 18-1 Chapter 19 Flood Control (Supplemental Chapter Available to Instructors for Distribution) 19-1 Appendix A Newton-Raphson Method 723 Index 727

About the Author

Larry W. Mays is Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Arizona State University and former chair of the department. He was formerly Director of the Center for Research in Water Resources at The University of Texas at Austin, where he also held an Engineering Foundation Endowed Professorship. A registered professional engineer in seven states and a registered professional hydrologist, he has served as a consultant to many organizations. He was the editor-in-chief of Reliability Analysis of Water Distribution Systems (ASCE) and co-editor of Computer Modeling of Free Surface and Pressurized Flows. Among his honors include a distinguished alumnus award from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1999.

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