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Vold's Theoretical Criminology


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Table of Contents

Preface Chapter 1 Theory and CrimeSpiritual ExplanationsNatural Explanations Scientific TheoriesCausation in Scientific Theories Three Frames of ReferenceRelationships Among the Three Frames of ReferenceKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 2 Theory and Policy in Context: The Great American Crime DeclineCrime in the United States: The Past Half-CenturyTwo Opposing Narratives of the Crime WaveExplaining the 1990s Crime DeclineThe City That Became SafeConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 3 Classical CriminologyThe Social and Intellectual Background of Classical CriminologyBeccaria and the Classical SchoolFrom Classical Theory to Deterrence ResearchThree Types of Deterrence ResearchRational Choice and Offending Routine Activities and VictimizationFocused Deterrence: Operation Ceasefire ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 4 Biological Factors and Criminal BehaviorBackground: Physical Appearance and DefectivenessLombroso, the "Born Criminal" and Positivist CriminologyGoring's Refutation of the "Born Criminal" Body Type TheoriesFamily StudiesTwin and Adoption StudiesMAOA: The "Warrior" GeneHormones The Central Nervous System The Autonomic Nervous System Environmentally Induced Biological Components of BehaviorImplications and ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 5 Psychological Factors and Criminal BehaviorIntelligence and Crime: Background Ideas and Concepts IQ Tests and Criminal BehaviorDelinquency, Race, and IQInterpreting the Association between Delinquency and IQ Personality and Criminal Behavior Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality DisorderClinical Prediction of Future DangerousnessActuarial Prediction of Later Crime and DelinquencyDepression and DelinquencyImpulsivity and CrimePolicy Implications of Personality ResearchConclusions Key TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 6 Durkheim, Anomie, and ModernizationEmile DurkheimCrime as Normal in Mechanical Societies Anomie as a Pathological State in Organic SocietiesDurkheim's Theory of CrimeConclusionKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 7 Neighborhoods and CrimeThe Theory of Human EcologyResearch in the "Delinquency Areas" of ChicagoPolicy ImplicationsResidential Succession, Social Disorganization, and CrimeSampson's Theory of Collective EfficacyExpanding Interest in Neighborhood Social ProcessesImplications and ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 8 Strain TheoriesRobert K. Merton and Anomie in American SocietyStrain as the Explanation of Gang Delinquency1960s Strain-Based PoliciesThe Decline and Resurgence of Strain TheoriesStrain in IndividualsStrain in SocietiesConclusionKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 9 Learning TheoriesBasic Psychological Approaches to LearningSutherland's Differential Association TheoryResearch Testing Sutherland's TheoryThe Content of Learning: Cultural and Subcultural TheoriesThe Learning Process: Social Learning TheoryAthens's Theory of "Violentization"Katz's Seductions of CrimeZimbardo's Lucifer EffectImplications Conclusions Key Terms Discussion QuestionsChapter 10 Control TheoriesEarly Control Theories: Reiss to NyeMatza's Delinquency and DriftHirschi's Social Control Theory Assessing Social Control TheoryGottfredson and Hirschi's A General Theory of Crime Assessing Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory Implications and ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 11 Labeling Theories and Conflict CriminologyLabeling TheoriesEarly Conflict Theories: Sellin and VoldConflict Theories in a Time of Conflict: Turk, Quinney, and Chambliss and SeidmanBlack's Theory of the Behavior of Law A Unified Conflict Theory of CrimeTesting Conflict CriminologyImplications and Conclusions Key TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 12 Marxism and Postmodern CriminologyOverview of Marx's Theory Marx on Crime, Criminal Law, and Criminal JusticeThe Emergence of Marxist CriminologyMarxist Theory and Research on CrimeOverview of PostmodernismPostmodern CriminologyConclusion Key TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 13 Gender and Crime The Development of Feminist CriminologySchools of Feminist CriminologyGender in CriminologyWhy are Women's Crime Rates So Low?Why are Men's Crime Rates So High?ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 14 Developmental TheoriesThe Great Debate: Criminal Careers, Longitudinal Research, and the Relationship Between Age and CrimeCriminal Propensity Versus Criminal CareerThe Transition to Developmental CriminologyThree Developmental DirectionsThornberry's Interactional TheorySampson and Laub's Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social ControlTremblay's Developmental Origins of Physical Aggression ConclusionsKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 15 Integrated TheoriesElliott's Integrated Theory of Delinquency and Drug UseThe Falsification versus Integration DebateBraithwaite's Theory of Reintegrative ShamingTittle's Control Balance TheoryColvin, Cullen, and Vander Ven's Coercion and Social SupportBernard and Snipes's Approach to Integrating Criminology TheoriesAgnew's General TheoryRobinson's Integrated Systems TheoryIntegrated Systems TheoryConclusionKey TermsDiscussion QuestionsChapter 16 Assessing Criminology TheoriesScience, Theory, Research, and PolicyIndividual Difference TheoriesStructure/Process TheoriesTheories of the Behavior of Criminal LawConclusionIndex

About the Author

The late Thomas J. Bernard was Professor of Criminal Justice and Sociology at Pennsylvania State University.Jeffrey B. Snipes, Ph.D. SUNY Albany; JD, Stanford, is Professor in Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.Alexander L. Gerould, JD, University of San Francisco, is Professor in Criminal Justice Studies at San Francisco State University.George B. Vold (1896-1967) was Professor of Sociology at University of Minnesota. He was an influential and renowned scholar and educator, contributing numerous articles, studies and speeches to the field of sociology and criminology.


"Vold's Theoretical Criminology is the classic text on criminological theory, providing an exceptional overview of the development of crime theories and a comprehensive examination of every major theory, including the many theories developed in recent years. This is an excellent text for any course on criminological theory."--Robert Agnew, Emory University"This text takes a comprehensive and up-to-date approach to both summarizing and analyzing the state of theoretical paradigms in criminology. In doing so, it places each paradigm in history, providing both the context for the theories' development and the implications of those theories on policy and on individuals. It also effectively incorporates issues of race, class, and gender into the theoretical discussions."--Dina Perrone, California State University at Long Beach"When teaching criminology, I seek to provide sophisticated accounts of a wide range of theoretical perspectives coupled with a selection of the best empirical research on the key issues important to the field. Over the years, I continue to find that Vold's Theoretical Criminology is the book that best fits my teaching goals. It is an excellent teaching tool and its breadth and depth of coverage is unparalleled."--John H. Laub, University of Maryland, College Park

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