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Vmware Esx and Esxi in the Enterprise
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Edward L. Haletky's Complete, Solutions-Focused Guide to Running ESX Server 3.5, vSphere, and VMware 4.x Extensively updated and revised, this is the definitive real-world guide to planning, deploying, and managing VMware ESX Server 3.5, VMware vSphere Hypervisor (ESXi), or VMware vSphere 4.x cloud computing in mission-critical environments. Drawing on his extensive experience consulting on enterprise VMware implementations, renowned expert Edward L. Haletky offers a "soup-to-nuts" collection of field-tested best practices and solutions. He illuminates the real benefits, issues, tradeoffs, and pitfalls associated with VMware's newest platforms, using real-world examples that draw upon both VMware and third-party products. This edition features detailed coverage of new vSphere features such as Storage IO Control, Network IO Control, Load-Based Teaming, Distributed Virtual Switches, ESXi, hardware and processors, and a significantly expanded discussion of auditing and monitoring. Haletky offers new or enhanced coverage of VM Hardware, virtual networking, VMsafe, and more. All new coverage is thoroughly integrated into Haletky's insightful discussion of the entire lifecycle: planning, installation, templates, monitoring, tuning, clustering, security, disaster recovery, and more. Haletky consistently presents the most efficient procedures, whether they use graphical tools or the command line. You'll learn how to: * Assess VMware datacenter and infrastructure hardware requirements * Understand technical, licensing, and management differences between ESX/ESXi 3.5 and 4.x * Plan installation for your environment and identify potential "gotchas" * Select, configure, utilize, and support storage cost-effectively * Manage key operational issues associated with virtual infrastructure * Adapt existing network and security infrastructure to virtualization * Configure ESX from host connections * Configure ESX Server from Virtual Centers or hosts * Create, modify, and manage VMs (with detailed Windows, Linux, and NetWare examples) * Troubleshoot VM issues with eDirectory, private labs, firewalls, and clusters * Utilize vSphere 4.1 's improved Dynamic Resource Load Balancing (DRLB) * Implement disaster recovery, business continuity, and backup * Plan for vApps and the future of virtualization VMware ESX and ESXi in the Enterprise has long been the definitive single-source guide to VMware planning, deployment, and management. For today's VMware architects, administrators, and managers, this edition will be even more valuable.
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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS 1Basic Hardware Considerations 2 Feature Considerations 3 Processor Considerations 6 Cache Considerations 8 Memory Considerations 11 I/O Card Considerations 13 10Gb Ethernet 16 Converged Network Adapters 16 Disk Drive Space Considerations 16 Basic Hardware Considerations Summary 17Specific Hardware Considerations 19Blade Server Systems 19 1U Server Systems 20 2U Server Systems 21 Large Server-Class Systems 22 The Effects of External Storage 23Examples 27 Example 1: Using Motherboard X and ESXi Will Not Install 27 Example 2: Installing ESX and Expecting a Graphical Console 27 Example 3: Existing Datacenter 28 Example 4: Office in a Box 29 Example 5: The Latest and Greatest 30 Example 6: The SAN 31 Example 7: Secure Environment 32 Example 8: Disaster Recovery 33Hardware Checklist 34Conclusion 35CHAPTER 2 VERSION COMPARISON 37VMware ESX/ESXi Architecture Overview 38vmkernel Differences 40 ESX Boot Differences 44 Tool Differences 51Virtual Networking 52 vNetwork Distributed Switch 53 Third-Party Virtual Switches 53 Fault Tolerance (FT) Logging 54 iSCSI Participation 54 IPv6 Support 54 VMsafe-Net 54 Summary 54Storage 56 Grow a VMFS Volume 57 Storage IO Control (SIOC) 57 Multipath Plug-in (MPP) 57 iSCSI and NFS Improvements 57 FCoE 58 Storage Summary 58Availability 60 Host Profiles 60 Fault Tolerance 60 Dynamic Power Management 62 High Availability (HA) Improvements 62 vMotion 62 Storage vMotion 62 Availability Summary 63Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Differences 64Virtual Hardware 66Virtual Machine and Server Management 68Security Differences 69Installation Differences 70Licensing Differences 71VMware Certification 74Conclusion 75CHAPTER 3 INSTALLATION 77Preinstallation Checklist 77Preinstallation/Upgrade Steps 80 Step 1: Back Up ESX 81 Step 2: Read the Release Notes 82 Step 3: Perform a Pre-Upgrade Test 82 Step 4: Prepare Your ESX Host 84 Installation/Upgrade Steps 85 Step 1: Read the Release Notes 85 Step 2: Read All Relevant Documentation 85 Step 3: Is Support Available for the Hardware Configuration? 85 Step 4: Verify the Hardware 85 Step 5: Are the Firmware Levels at Least Minimally Supported? 86 Step 6: Is the System and Peripheral BIOS Correctly Set? 87 Step 7: Where Do You Want the Boot Disk Located? 88 Step 8: VMware ESX Host License 89 Step 9: Guest OS License and Installation Materials 89 Step 10: Service Console Network Information 89 Step 11: Memory Allocated to the Service Console 89 Step 12: vmkernel Network Information 90 Step 13: Number of Virtual Network Switches 90 Step 14: Virtual Network Switch Label Name(s) 91 Step 15: File System Layouts 91 Step 16: Configure the Server and the FC HBA to Boot from SAN or Boot from iSCSI 93 Step 17: Start ESX/ESXi Host Installations 102 Step 18: Connecting to the Management User Interface for the First Time 112 Step 19: Third-Party Tools to Install 116 Step 20: Additional Software Packages to Install 117 Step 21: Patch ESX or ESXi 117 Step 22: Guest Operating System Software 117 Step 23: Guest Operating System Licenses 117 Step 24: Network Information for Each Guest Operating System 118 Step 25: Guest Upgrades 118Automating Installation 118 EXi 4.1 118 ESX 4 118 Kickstart Directives 119Conclusion 121CHAPTER 4 AUDITING AND MONITORING 123Auditing Recipe 124 ESX and ESXi 124 ESX 128 ESXi 134 Auditing Conclusion 134Monitoring Recipe 135 Host Hardware Monitoring 135 Virtual Machine State Monitoring 136 Network Monitoring 136 Performance Monitoring 137 Application Monitoring 137 Security Monitoring 137ESX-Specific Auditing and Monitoring Concerns 138 vmkernel Considerations 139 vMotion and Fault Tolerance Considerations 139 Other ESX Considerations 139What to Do If There Is a Break-In 141Conclusion 142CHAPTER 5 STORAGE WITH ESX 143Overview of Storage Technology with ESX 144 FC Versus SCSI Versus SAS Versus ATA Versus SATA, and So On 145 FCoE and Converged Network Adapters (CNAs) 147 iSCSI (SCSI over IP) 147 NAS (Network-Attached Storage) 149 SANs (Storage Area Networks) 149Storage Best Practices for ESX 160 SAN/iSCSI Best Practices 160 iSCSI/NFS Best Practices 161Virtual Machine File System 161 VMDK and VMFS Manipulation 163 VMFS Types 164 Structure of VMFS 164Storage Checklist 169Assessing Storage and Space Requirements 171 LUN Sizes 172 Example of LUN Sizing 175Storage-Specific Issues 176 Increasing the Size of a VMDK 177 Increasing the Size of a VMFS 178 Searching for New LUNs 178 VMFS Created on One ESX Host Not Appearing on Another 179 How to Unlock a LUN 179 Boot from SAN or iSCSI 180Conclusion 180CHAPTER 6 EFFECTS ON OPERATIONS 181SCSI-2 Reservation Issues 182Performance-Gathering and Hardware Agents Within a VM 189 Network Utilization 191 Virtual Machine Mobility 192Data Store Performance or Bandwidth Issues 193Other Operational Issues 194 Life-Cycle Management 195Conclusion 197CHAPTER 7 NETWORKING 199Basic Building Blocks 199 Details of the Building Blocks 202 vNetwork Functionality 215Network Definitions 237 Virtual Environment Management Network 240 Out-of-Band Management Network 242 vMotion Network 242 Fault Tolerance Logging Network 243 NFS Network 243 iSCSI Network 244 VM Network 244Checklist 246 pSwitch Settings Checklist 250vNetworking 252 vNetworks: The Great VLAN Debate 252 vNetworks: Network Splits 253 vNetworks: Simple Network 256 vNetworks: Adding More to the Virtualization Network 257 vNetwork: DMZ 260pNIC Determination 262Conclusion 263CHAPTER 8 CONFIGURING ESX FROM A HOST CONNECTION 265Configuration Tasks 266Server-Specific Tasks 266 ESXi Root Password 268 ESXi Management Network 269 Create Administrative Users 270 Security Configuration 278 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 280Service Console Memory 284 Command Line (ESX v3) 286 vSC (ESX v3) 287Patching ESX and ESXi 287 Patching VIA vSphere Host Update Utility 287 Patching VIA VMware Update Manager 289Conclusion 292CHAPTER 9 CONFIGURING ESX FROM A VIRTUAL CENTER OR HOST 295Configuration Tasks 296Join Host to vCenter 296Licensing 297 ESX v4 298Virtual Swap 305VMFS Manipulation 306 Rename Local VMFS via Command Line 307 Connect to Storage Device 307 VMFS Manipulation with the vSphere Client 319 Growing a VMFS 333 Upgrading from VMFS v3.xx to v3.33 or v3.34 334 Masking and Max LUN Manipulations 335Virtual Networking 337 Configuring the Service Console or ESXi Management Appliance 337 Creating a VM Network vSwitch 340 Creating a vNetwork Distributed Virtual Switch 344 vSC 344 Setting Up PVLANs Within a Distributed Virtual Switch 347 Creating a vMotion vSwitch 348 Creating a FT Network 352 Command Line 353 Adding an iSCSI Network 356 Adding a NAS vSwitch for Use by NFS 357 Adding a Private vSwitch 358 Adding Additional pNICs to a vSwitch 359 Adding vSwitch Portgroups 360 Removing vSwitch Portgroups 360 Distributed vSwitch Portgroup 361 vSwitch Removal 361 Distributed vSwitch Removal 362 vSwitch Security 362 vSwitch Properties 364 Changing vmkernel Gateways 367 Changing pNIC Settings 369 Changing Traffic-Shaping Settings 370iSCSI VMFS 372 Command Line 372 vSC 373Network-Attached Storage 375 Command Line 375 vSC 376Mapping Information 378Secure Access to Management Interfaces 379Advanced Settings 380Conclusion 380CHAPTER 10 VIRTUAL MACHINES 383Overview of Virtual Hardware 383Creating VMs 389 VM Creation from vSC 393 VM Creation from Command Line 435Installing Guest Operating Systems 442 Using Local to the ESX Host CD-ROMs 443 Using a Local or Shared ESX Host ISO Image 444 Using Client Device or ISO 445 Importance of DVD/CD-ROM Devices 447 Other Installation Options 447Special Situations 447 Using CD/RW and DVD/RW/R+/R- Devices 447 Virtual Guest Tagging Driver 448 Virtual Hardware for Non-Disk SCSI Devices 448 Virtual Hardware for Raw Disk Map Access to Remote SCSI 450 Virtual Hardware for RDM-Like Access to Local SCSI 450 VM Disk Modes and Snapshots 452 OS Installation Peculiarities 456 Cloning, Templates, and Deploying VMs 457VM Solutions 458 Private Lab 458 Firewalled Private Lab 458 Firewalled Lab Bench 460 Cluster in a Box 462 Cluster Between ESX Hosts 462 Cluster Between Virtual and Physical Servers 463 vCenter as a VM 463 Virtual Appliances 464VMware Tools 465VMX Changes 466Conclusion 467CHAPTER 11 DYNAMIC RESOURCE LOAD BALANCING 469Defining DRLB 469The Basics 470The Advanced Features 473 Shares 486 Resource Pool Addendum 488 Network Resources 489 Disk Resources 490 CPU Resources 491 Memory Resources 491 vApps 492Monitoring 494 Alarms 495 Performance Analysis 504Putting It All Together 511Conclusion 512CHAPTER 12 DISASTER RECOVERY, BUSINESS CONTINUITY, AND BACKUP 513Disaster Types 514Recovery Methods 517Best Practices 521Backup and Business Continuity 522 Backup 523 Business Continuity 529The Tools 531 Local Tape Devices 534 VMware Data Recovery 534 Third-Party Tools 538Conclusion 538EPILOGUE: THE FUTURE OF THE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT 539REFERENCES 543INDEX 545

About the Author

Edward L. Haletky is the author of VMware vSphere and Virtual Infrastructure Security: Securing the Virtual Environment as well as the first edition of this book, VMware ESX Server in the Enterprise: Planning and Securing Virtualization Servers . Edward owns AstroArch Consulting, Inc., providing virtualization, security, network consulting, and development, and The Virtualization Practice, where he is also an analyst. Edward is the moderator and host of the Virtualization Security Podcast, as well as a guru and moderator for the VMware Communities Forums, providing answers to security and configuration questions. Edward is working on new books on virtualization.

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