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Visual Perception from a Computer Graphics Perspective
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This work provides an introduction to human visual perception suitable for readers studying or working in the fields of computer graphics and visualization, cognitive science, and visual neuroscience. It focuses on how computer graphics images are generated, rather than solely on the organization of the visual system itself; therefore, the text provides a more direct tie between image generation and the resulting perceptual phenomena. It covers such topics as the perception of material properties, illumination, the perception of pictorial space, image statistics, perception and action, and spatial cognition.
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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION Overview Organization of the Book Computer Graphics Vision Science The Process of Vision Useful Generalizations about Perception Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading BUILDING BLOCKS Visual Sensitivity The Human Eye Terminology and Units Acuity Contrast Dynamic Range Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading 2D Image Features Contour Detection and Appearance Interpretation of Contours Spatial Frequency Features Grouping Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Color Measuring the Spectral Distribution of Light The Perception of Color Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading 2D Motion Sensing Visual Motion Image Changes Seen as Motion Local Ambiguity Apparent Motion EyeMovements Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Stereo and Accommodation The Geometry of Stereo Vision Depth from Triangulation in the Visual System Accommodation and Blur Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading SURFACES AND MOVEMENT Perspective The Nature of Perspective Interposition The Relationship between Size and Distance Size and Shape Constancy The Importance of the Ground Plane Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Texture Characterizing Information About a Visual Texture Classification and Discrimination Perception of Three-Dimensional Surface Structure from Visual Texture Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Illumination, Shading, and Shadows Physical Properties of Illumination and Shading Shape from Shading Illumination and the Intrinsic Properties of Surfaces Global Illumination and the Light Field Experiments on Human Estimation of Illumination Cast Shadows Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Perception of Material Properties What Makes Material Perception Difficult? Estimating Material Properties: Two Approaches Surface Reflectance and the BRDF Matte Materials: Albedo and Lightness Constancy Specular Reflection and Glossiness Transparency and Translucency Texture and Surface Relief 3D Shape, Deformations, and the Perception of Material Properties Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Motion of Viewer and Objects Relative Motion, Optic Flow, and Frames of Reference for Describing Movement Viewer Motion Object Motion Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Pictorial Space Missing and Conflicting Spatial Cues Incorrect Viewpoint Is Picture Perception Learned? Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading PERCEPTION OF HIGHER-LEVEL ENTITIES Spatial Orientation and Spatial Cognition Divisions and Information for Space Perception Distance Perception and Ways to Measure It Dynamic Spatial Orientation Perceptual Adaptation Imagery and Spatial Transformations Spatial Knowledge and Memory The Process of Wayfinding: A Summary Individual Differences Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Perception and Action Ecological Approach to Perception Separate Systems for Perception and Action Integrated Perception and Action Systems Reaching and Grasping Embodied Perception Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Object and Scene Recognition The Problem of Object Recognition Possible Approaches to Object Recognition Scene Perception and the Role of Context in Object Recognition Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Visual Attention and Search Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processing Eye Movements Selective Attention Visual Search Other Failures of Visual Awareness Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Event Recognition-Inanimate Types of Events Perceiving Natural Events Event Recognition and Segmentation Event Recognition: Interactions between Vision and Audition Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading Event Recognition-Biological Perception of Point-Light Displays What Makes Biological Events Compelling? Perception of Faces Why Are Biological Events Special? Issues Specific to Computer Graphics Suggestions for Further Reading References Index

Reviews

"This is a fabulous book written by the right people, and if I had to pick only three books for my desk, this would be one of them." --Peter Shirley, author of Fundamentals of Computer Graphics "This is the first book on perception to build on the need to understand how images are formed in order to understand how they are perceived and used. The discussions of applications to computer graphics are the icing on the cake of a broad and often deep treatment of the ever-growing science of human visual perception." --Daniel Kersten, Department of Psychology University of Minnesota. "Finally, here is a book that offers a thorough introduction to visual perception specifically geared toward the graphics practitioner. It should be required reading for anyone serious about computer graphics." --Alexei A. Efros, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University "!It matches basic vision texts in coverage and adds the unique point of view of production: how would you create this scene? It is an excellent resource and new source of ideas about how vision works and how computer graphics can best take advantage of the properties of the human visual system." --Patrick Cavanagh, Professeur des universites, Universite Paris Descartes and Research Professor, Harvard University

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