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Violence
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii Overview Part I General Framework 1 1 Introduction 3 A Brief Introduction 3 Defining Violence 4 Redefining Violence 5 Examples of Violence 6 The Iliad 6 The Khmer Rouge 7 A Case of Child Neglect 7 Suicide by Gun 8 Connecting the Dots 8 A New Field 10 A New Awareness 12 Structure of the Text 15 What to Expect 17 Conclusion 18 References 19 Causes Part II Intra-/Interpersonal Framework 23 2 The Biology of Violence 25 Introduction 25 The Tempting Idea 26 Case Vignettes 28 The Case of Phineas Gage 28 Familial Depression 29 Traumatic Brain Injury and Posttraumatic Stress 30 Postpartum Depression and Psychosis 31 Aggression versus Violence 31 Mental Illness and Violence 32 The Neuroplastic Brain 34 Environment and Epigenetics 35 The Interconnected Whole 36 Conclusion 38 References 39 3 The Psychology of Violence 45 Introduction 45 One Among Many 47 Case Vignettes 48 Clinical Depression 48 Antisocial Personality 49 Extreme Narcissism 50 Heat of Passion 51 The Mind as Iceberg 52 Some Defense Mechanisms 53 The Mind as Paradox 54 A Developmental Matter 56 Positive Psychology 57 Conclusion 58 References 60 4 The Symbolism (or Spiritual Causes) of Violence 64 Introduction 64 Violence and Meaning 65 Case Vignettes 66 Mythological Violence 66 Cycle of Revenge 67 Cult Violence 68 Mob Violence 69 A Longing for Life 70 A Forbidden Concept 71 Violence in Religion and Art 73 Meaning and Moral Development 74 Compassion and Creativity 76 Conclusion 77 References 78 Causes (Continued) Part III Social and Societal Framework 83 5 The Sociology and Anthropology of Violence 85 Introduction 85 Evolution of Sociology 86 Evolution of Anthropology 87 Case Vignettes 88 A Cult of End Times 88 Social Exclusion 90 Social Negation 90 Warring Peoples 91 Domestic Terrorism 92 Sociological Theories 93 Anthropological Perspectives 95 Need for Belonging 97 Conclusion 98 References 99 6 The Political Science and Economics of Violence 104 Introduction 104 Evolution of the Two Disciplines 105 Case Vignettes 106 A Separatist Movement 106 Apartheid 108 Social Engineering 109 Rape as a Weapon of War 110 Military Dictatorship 110 Macro?Scale Political Science Theories 111 Micro?Scale Political Science Theories 113 Microeconomic Perspectives 114 Macroeconomic Perspectives 115 Concepts of Power 116 Conclusion 118 References 119 7 Structural Violence 123 Introduction 123 Origins of the Concept 124 Case Vignettes 127 A Prison Inmate's Predicament 127 A Poor Child's Martyrdom 127 A Lead Into Collective Violence 128 A Lead Into Self?Directed Violence 129 Healthcare, Nutrition, and Liberty Disparities 130 Gender, Racial, and Voting Rights Disparities 132 Expansion of the Concept 133 The Most Potent Stimulant 135 Conclusion 136 References 138 8 Environmental (and Nuclear) Violence 143 Introduction 143 Clarifying Misconceptions 144 Furthering the Concept 145 Case Vignettes 147 Violence Over Diminishing Resources 147 Premature Deaths due to Lack of Water 147 Migrations Due to Climate Change 148 Nuclear Devastation 149 Political Economy and Scarcity 150 Resource Curse and Violent Dispossession 151 Secondary Violence from the Environment 152 The Perils of Nuclear War 153 Conclusion 155 References 156 Consequences Part IV Life Cycle Framework 161 9 Consequences of Violence 163 Introduction 163 Case Vignettes 164 Child Abuse and Neglect 164 Veteran Partner Violence 166 Financial and Physical Elder Abuse 167 Medical Consequences of Rape 168 Wartime Collective Sexual Violence 169 Self?Directed Violence 170 Youth, Intimate Partner, and Sexual Violence 171 Child Maltreatment and Elder Abuse 173 Collective Violence 174 Consequences of Trauma 175 Conclusion 176 References 177 Cures Part V Intervention Framework 183 10 Criminal Justice Approaches 185 Introduction 185 Historical Overview 186 Restoration versus Retribution 188 Discrimination and Legitimacy 191 Reform versus Abolition 192 Case Studies 194 Scandinavian Prisons 194 Prison Meditation 195 Prison Animal Therapy 195 Youth Violence Prevention 196 Prison Violence Prevention Programming 196 Conclusion 197 References 199 11 International Law Approaches 204 Introduction 204 Historical Background 205 International Legal Structures 206 Challenges and Successes 208 Abuses and the Difficulty of Enforcement 209 Changing Landscapes 211 Case Studies 214 A and Others v. the UK (2004) 214 Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (2007) 215 Andriciuc and Others v. Banca Romaneasc? SA (2017) 215 F v. Bevandorlasi es Allampolgarsagi Hivatal (2018) 216 Quinteros v. Uruguay (1983) 216 Conclusion 217 References 218 Cures (Continued) Part VI Prevention Framework 225 12 Public Health Approaches 227 Introduction 227 History 228 The Ecological Framework 230 A Typology of Violence 231 The Public Health Method 232 Violence Prevention 232 Multisectoral Collaboration 234 Challenges and Possibilities 236 Case Studies 238 A Prenatal Care Program 238 Family Violence Prevention 239 School?Based Violence Prevention 240 Bullying Prevention 240 Firearm Restriction Policies 241 Conclusion 242 References 243 13 Global Medicine Approaches 248 Introduction 248 Historical Background 249 Human?Centered Healthcare 251 A CARE Model 253 A Creative Model 256 Local and Global 258 Case Studies 259 Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) 259 Cure Violence 260 Mercy Corps 261 One Acre Fund 261 The Library Project 262 Conclusion 262 References 263 14 Nonviolence Approaches 268 Introduction 268 Historical Basis 269 More Recent Examples 270 Criticisms 272 Basic Tenets 273 Applications 274 Case Studies 276 A Beacon of Hope Amid Racial Discrimination 276 Fighting the Good Fight 277 The Father of a Nation 278 Lessons From a War Zone 279 The Monk With a Cause 280 Conclusion 281 References 283 Conclusion Part VII Overview and Analysis 287 15 Synthesis and Integration 289 Introduction 289 The Endgame of Violence 290 The Threat of Nuclear War 293 The Threat of Climate Catastrophe 295 The Threat of Escalating Inequality 296 The Fruits of Integration 298 The Power of Unity 299 Conclusion 302 References 303 Index 308

About the Author

Bandy X. Lee, MD, MDiv, is on the faculty of Yale School of Medicine's Law and Psychiatry Division, USA. She has taught at Yale Law School for over fifteen years and has served as project group leader for the Violence Prevention Alliance of the World Health Organization. She has also consulted with UNESCO and other United Nations bodies, helped initiate reforms at New York City's Rikers Island Correctional Center, and co-founded Yale's Violence and Health Study Group. Dr. Lee teaches a range of courses on violence including "Violence: Causes and Cures." She has authored numerous peer-reviewed articles and edited 13 academic books.

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