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Veterinary Technician's Handbook of Laboratory Procedures


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Table of Contents

Preface xi Acknowledgments xiii About the Companion Website xv 1 Laboratory Equipment 3 Laboratory equipment 3 Microscope 3 Centrifuge 9 Refractometer 11 Chemistry analyzers 13 Hematology analyzers 13 Coagulation analyzers 14 Quality control of all laboratory equipment 14 2 Blood Analysis 17 Hematology 17 Proper blood collection and handling techniques 17 Blood collection tubes 17 Peripheral blood smears 18 Staining 22 Packed cell volume (PCV) 23 Red blood cell count 26 Red blood cell indices 28 Reticulocyte count 29 Corrected reticulocyte percentage 30 Reticulocyte production index (RPI) 31 White blood cell count 31 White blood cell differential 33 Calculations 34 White blood cell estimate 35 Corrected white blood cell count 36 Platelet count 37 Platelet estimate 38 Normal species variation of leukocytes 40 Neutrophil maturation 44 Abnormal morphological changes in leukocytes 45 Erythrocyte morphologies 46 Evaluating a blood film to complement automated analyzers 51 Clinical chemistries 52 Coagulation testing 53 Activated clotting time 54 Buccal mucosal bleeding time 54 Automated clotting tests 55 3 Urinalysis 57 Sample collection 57 Free catch (voided sample) 57 Bladder expression 57 Catheterization 58 Cystocentesis 59 Sample preservation 59 In vitro changes occurring in unpreserved urine 60 Refrigeration 60 Freezing 61 Toluene 61 Formalin (40%) 61 Boric acid (0.8%) 61 Commercial preservation tablets 61 Physical examination of urine 62 Volume 62 Color 62 Turbidity 62 Odor 63 Specific gravity (SG) 64 Chemical examination 65 Glucose 66 Bilirubin 66 Ketones 67 Blood 67 pH 67 Protein 67 Urobilinogen 67 Nitrite 68 Leukocytes 68 Sediment examination 68 Materials required 68 Sediment stain 68 Procedure for microscopic examination of urine 69 Reporting of findings 70 Microscopic elements of urine sediment 70 4 Parasitology 77 Collection 77 Pooled samples 77 Gross examination 78 Consistency 78 Color 78 Blood 78 Mucous 78 Gross parasites 78 Microscopic examination 79 Direct fecal smear 79 Simple fecal flotation 80 Centrifugation technique 81 Baermann technique 83 Common parasites of domestic species 83 Canine and feline 83 Ruminants 106 Equine 113 5 Cytology 121 Sample collection 121 Swabs 121 Fine needle biopsy 123 Tissue biopsy 125 Imprints 127 Centesis 128 Scrapings 129 Smear preparation 130 Feather smear method 130 Line smear method 131 Compression (or squash) method 131 Modified squash method 133 Starfish method 133 Staining 135 Romanowsky stains (Wright's and Diff-Quick) 135 New methylene blue 135 Microscopic evaluation of cytology slides 136 Pyknosis and karyorrhexis 136 Karyolysis 138 Classifying cell types 138 Inflammation 138 Other cell types 140 Neoplasia 140 Reporting your findings 144 Laboratory submissions 144 Ear cytology 144 Slide preparation and staining 145 Microscopic findings 145 Vaginal cytology 145 Collection methods 147 Cell types seen 148 Stages of estrous 152 Semen evaluation 154 Slide preparation 154 Live/dead sperm ratio 155 Sperm morphology 155 Appendix 159 Temperature conversions 159 Metric conversions 159 Length 159 Weight 160 Volume 160 Metric system 160 Glossary 161 Bibliography 169 Index 171

About the Author

Brianne Bellwood, RAHT, is a full time instructor and theProgram Coordinator for the Animal Health Technology program atLakeland College in Vermilion, Alberta, Canada. She coversboth the practical and theoretical components of several laboratorysubjects for Animal Health Technology students. She is also theProgram Coordinator for the Animal Health Technology program atLakeland College. Melissa Andrasik-Catton, RVT, BS, was a full timeinstructor for 10 years and is now an adjunct instructor for MapleWoods Community College Veterinary Technology Program. She isalso a Clinical Trials Manager for Product Development andRegulatory Affairs at Dechra, Development, LLC. Shefrequently lectures on the subject of Clinical Pathology at local,state and regional veterinary conferences.


Overall, this is a moderately priced and useful quickreference book. (Journal of the American VeterinaryMedical Association, 15 June 2014) A 'must' for any practicing technician's referencelibrary. (Midwest Book Review, 1 July 2014)

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