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Vertebrate Flight


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Table of Contents

1. Introduction.- 1.1 Gliders.- 1.2 Active Flyers.- 1.3 Outline of the Book.- 2. Basic Aerodynamics.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 The Flow Around an Aerofoil.- 2.2.1 Bernoulli's Equation.- 2.2.2 Reynolds Number.- 2.2.3 Boundary Layer.- 2.3 Blade-Element and Momentum Jet Theories.- 2.3.1 Lift and Drag.- 2.3.2 Power Required to Fly.- 2.4 Vortex Theory of Flight.- 2.4.1 Bound, Trailing and Starting Vortices.- 2.4.2 Steady Motion.- 2.4.3 Lifting-Line Theories.- 2.4.4 Quasi-Steady Assumption.- 2.4.5 Unsteady Effects.- 3. Physiology of Flight.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Energy and Mechanical Efficiency.- 3.3 Metabolic Rates.- 3.4 Oxygen Uptake.- 3.4.1 Respiratory Mechanics.- 3.4.2 Respiratory Gas Exchange.- 3.4.3 Circulation.- 3.4.4 Oxygen Consumption Versus Body Mass.- 3.4.5 Mass Loss.- 3.4.6 Heat Loss and Exchange.- 3.5 Altitudinal Changes.- 3.6 Estimates for Cost of Flight.- 3.6.1 Direct Measurements of O2 Uptake and CO2 Production.- 3.6.2 Mass Loss.- 3.6.3 Doubly Labelled Water Method.- 3.6.4 Radio Telemetry.- 3.7 Flight Duration, Flight Range and Cost of Transport.- 4. Morphological Flight Parameters.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Lenghts, Areas, Masses.- 4.3 Wing Shape.- 4.4 Weis-Fogh's and Ellington's Shape Parameters.- 5. Gliding Flight.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Gliding Performance.- 5.3 Effects of Change in Wingspan on Gliding Performance.- 5.4 Lifting Line Theory.- 5.5 Flap-Gliding.- 5.6 Stability and Control of Movements.- 5.6.1 Pitch.- 5.6.2 Roll.- 5.6.3 Yaw.- 6. Soaring.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Soaring Methods.- 6.2.1 Slope Soaring.- 6.2.2 Thermal Soaring.- 6.2.3 Gust, Frontal and Wave Soaring.- 6.2.4 Dynamic Soaring.- 6.3 Soaring Performance and Flight Morphology.- 6.3.1 Circling Performance.- 6.3.2 Cross-Country Soaring.- 6.3.3 Wing Shape in Soaring Birds.- 6.4 Bats and Pterosaurs.- 7. Migration.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Orientation and Navigation.- 7.3 Flight Range.- 7.4 Cruising Speed and Flight Time.- 7.5 Effect of Wind.- 7.6 Evolution of Soaring Migration.- 7.7 Formation Flight.- 8. Hovering Flight.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Kinematics of Hovering.- 8.3 The Rankine-Froude Momentum Theory.- 8.4 Blade-Element Theory.- 8.4.1 Profile, Parasite and Inertial Power.- 8.4.2 Weis-Fogh's Model for Normal Hovering.- 8.4.3 Norberg's Model for Asymmetrical Hovering.- 8.5 Vortex Theory.- 8.5.1 Ellington's Hovering Model.- 8.5.2 Rayner's Hovering Model.- 8.6 Animals with Sustained Hovering.- 8.7 Summary and for Ecologists and Others: Recipes for Power Calculation.- 8.7.1 Induced Power, Normal Hovering.- 8.7.2 Induced Power, Asymmetrical Hovering.- 8.7.3 Profile Power, Normal Hovering.- 8.7.4 Profile Power, Asymmetrical Hovering.- 8.7.5 Inertial Power.- 9. Forward Flight.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Wing Kinematics.- 9.3 Relative Airspeeds and Forces.- 9.3.1 Downstroke Forces.- 9.3.2 Upstroke Forces.- 9.4 Vorticity Action.- 9.5 Power Requirements for Horizontal Forward Flight.- 9.5.1 Induced Power.- 9.5.2 Profile Power.- 9.5.3 Parasite Power.- 9.5.4 Inertial Power.- 9.5.5 Flapping Flight with Constant Circulation.- 9.5.6 A Method of Calculating Forces with Blade-Element Theory.- 9.5.7 Comparison Between Different Power Models.- 9.6 Take-Off, Climbing and Landing.- 9.6.1 Take-Off and Climbing.- 9.6.2 Landing.- 9.7 Flight Manoeuvres.- 9.7.1 Turning Ability.- 9.7.2 Maximum Roll Acceleration and the Initiation of a Turn.- 9.7.3 Prey Catching and Landing Manoeuvres.- 9.8 Energy-Saving Types of Flight.- 9.8.1 Bounding Flight.- 9.8.2 Undulating Flight.- 9.8.3 Ground Effect.- 9.9 For Ecologists and Others: Recipes for Power Calculation.- 9.9.1 Induced Power.- 9.9.2 Profile Power.- 9.9.3 Parasite Power.- 9.9.4 Power Required for a Climb.- 9.9.5 Power Required for a Descent.- 9.9.6 Power Required for Bounding Flight.- 9.9.7 Power Required for Undulating Flight.- 10. Scaling.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Geometric Similarity.- 10.3 Estimated Relationships Between Wing Characteristics and Body Mass.- 10.3.1 Wingspan.- 10.3.2 Wing Area.- 10.3.3 Wing Loading.- 10.3.4 Aspect Ratio.- 10.3.5 Flight Speed, Power and Cost of Transport.- 10.3.6 Flight Muscle Masses.- 10.3.7 Wingbeat Frequency.- 10.4 Upper and Lower Size Limits.- 11. Morphological Adaptations for Flight.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Muscle System.- 11.2.1 Muscle Fibre Structure and Function.- 11.2.2 The Structure of Bird Muscle Fibres.- 11.2.3 The Structure of Bat Muscle Fibres.- 11.2.4 Contraction Rate and Wingbeat Frequency.- 11.2.5 Body Size, Wing Shape and Flight Muscle Fibres - a Summary.- 11.2.6 Flight Muscle Power.- 11.2.7 Flight Muscle Structure.- 11.2.8 Muscle Arrangements.- 11.2.9 The Main Flight Muscles.- 11.3 Skeleton System.- 11.3.1 Trunk Skeleton.- 11.3.2 Pectoral Girdle.- 11.3.3 Wing Skeletal and Membrane Arrangements.- 11.3.4 Were Pterosaurs Quadrupedal or Bipedal?.- 11.4 Feather Structure and Function.- 11.4.1 Main Structure.- 11.4.2 Vane Asymmetry and Feather Curvature.- 11.4.3 Flight Feathers of Archaeopteryx.- 11.4.4 Silent Flight.- 11.5 Wing Adaptations Enhancing Flight Performance.- 11.5.1 Wing Camber.- 11.5.2 Wing Flaps.- 11.5.3 Turbulence Generators.- 11.5.4 Wing Slots.- 11.5.5 Energy-Saving Elastic Systems.- 11.6 Tail and Feet.- 12. Flight and Ecology.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Predictions on Wing Shape and Flight Behaviour.- 12.3 Wing Design in Birds.- 12.3.1 Continuous Foraging Flights.- 12.3.2 Perching.- 12.3.3 Locomotion Among Vegetation.- 12.3.4 Migratory Species.- 12.3.5 Foraging on Ground or in Water.- 12.4 Wing Shape and Foraging Energetics of Hummingbirds at Different Altitudes.- 12.5 Wing Design of Species in a Pariform Guild.- 12.6 Wing Design in Bats.- 12.7 Wing Design and Echolocation Call Structure in Bats.- 12.8 Evolution of Wing Morphology.- 13. Evolution of Flight.- 13.1 The Major Theories.- 13.1.1 Trees-Down Theory.- 13.1.2 Ground-Up Theory.- 13.2 Transition from Gliding to Flapping Flight, an Aerodynamic Model.- 13.3 The Ground-Running and Jumping Scenario, a Discussion.- 13.4 The Climbing Ability in Proto-Fliers.- 14. Concluding Remarks.- References.

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