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Urban Air Pollution

This book presents the proceedings of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop which was also financially supported by the National Research Council of Italy. The Workshop was held from October 9 to 15, 1994, at the Centro Ettore Maiorana in Erice, Italy. Over 40 researchers from a wide variety of fields attended the Workshop, which brought to attention the ongoing research on various phenomena related to urban air pollution. The presence of high levels of atmospheric pollutants in the air of several urban centres of developed and developing countries causes a great concern among authorities and public opinion. Some 20% of the European population live in cities of more than 500,000 inhabitants and about 40% in cities of more than 50,000. Since exceedance of the Air Quality Guidelines has been observed to occur worldwide, a great effort has been addressed to the control of primary pollutants, but many problems related to secondary pollutants such as nitrogen containing species (nitrogen oxides, nitric and nitrous acid, ni trates) and photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN and others) are far from being solved. The importance of atmospheric chemistry in understanding the processes occurring in urban atmospheres has been well recognised, thus there is a strong need to exchange experiences and results from urban centres in different Countries. Indeed, atmospheric pollution is very much dependent on the type of emissions which are very different according to the economic development of the urban centre under consideration.
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Table of Contents

I Chemistry of Urban Pollution.- Urban Atmospheric Pollution: Review of the State-of-the-Art.- Atmospheric Chemistry Relevant to Urban Pollution.- Laboratory Studies for Understanding Atmospheric Chemical Processes.- Studies of Photochemical Ozone Formation in Toluene/NOx/Air Systems by Empirical and Numerical Simulations.- Laboratory Studies of Elementary Reactions.- II Monitoring.- Design and Planning of Field Campaigns.- Diffusion Denuders: Tools for Simultaneous Sampling of NO2 and PAN and for the Determination of Reactivity of Marble Surfaces.- A New Approach to Designing of Air Quality Monitoring Networks in Urban Areas.- The Monitoring System for Urban Air Pollution in Belarus.- Recent Developments in Atmosphere Pollution Control.- Complex Analysis of the Atmosphere Contamination in Industrial Centers of Belarus.- III Source characterization.- Monitoring and Modeling Methods for Developing Air Pollution Control Strategies: a Case Study in the Northwest Czech Republic.- Some Results of Mobile Measurements of the Influence of the Town Sofia on Air Pollution in the Surrounding Area.- Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Measurements in a Road Tunnel in Budapest.- Applications of Highly-Resolved Size-Spectra for Source Attribution, Growth and Deposition of Urban Aerosol Particles Bearing Various Elements.- Use of Scanning Electron Microscopy for Particle Characterization and in Support of Receptor Modelling.- Vehicular Contributions to Primary Airborne Particulate Matter and Urban Air Quality.- Receptor Methods for VOC Source Apportionment in Urban Environments.- IV Local/Regional Studies.- Air Pollution Characteristics of a Region of Sofia and Data from Field Experiments (1992-1993).- Evaluation of the Air Quality in Budapest Based on the Data of a Monitoring Network and Measurement Campaigns.- Air Pollution Monitoring in the Industrial Centers of Belarus.- V Modelling.- Input-Output Modeling Data Relationship for Computer Simulation of Photochemical Oxidants: Some Relevant Examples in Urban-Industrial Areas.- Advanced Observation Methodologies of Urban Atmospheric Boundary Layers.- Use of Proper Variables to Describe Some Aspects of Urban Pollution.- Air Pollution Modelling and its Interactions with Experimental Studies - The Situation in Southern Europe.- Neural Network Modelling: Perspectives of Application for Monitoring and Forecasting Physical-chemical Variables in the Boundary Layer.- Air Pollution in the Mediterranean: Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling.- VI Management.- System Approach to Air Quality Monitoring Identification of Main Problems.- Development of Smog Warning Systems in Large Industrial Metropolises Based on the Example of Upper Silesian Industrial Region.- The State of the Energy System and Pollution Control Policy on the Background of Poland.- Urban Air Pollution Monitoring in Lithuania.- The participation of the Hungarian Meteorological Service in the Meteorological Establishment of the Smog Alarm of Budapest.- Space-time Statistical Structure of the Pollution Field over Sofia, Bulgaria.- Towards the Assessment of Air Quality and its Possible Health Impacts in European Cities.- Urban Air Quality Measurement: Organizational Principles and Procedure Aspects.- Exposure Assessment Methodologies for Humans and Ecosystems.- Air Pollution Warning System - Critical Points of Decision Algorithm.- Author Index.

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