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Unmanned Aircraft Systems
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Table of Contents

Foreword xiii Acknowledgements xiv Series Preface xv Preface xvii Units and Abbreviations xix 1 Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) 1 1.1 Some Applications of UAS 1 1.2 What are UAS? 3 1.3 Why Unmanned Aircraft? 5 1.4 The Systemic Basis of UAS 9 1.5 System Composition 9 References 15 Part 1 THE DESIGN OF UAV SYSTEMS 17 2 Introduction to Design and Selection of the System 19 2.1 Conceptual Phase 19 2.2 Preliminary Design 20 2.3 Detail Design 20 2.4 Selection of the System 20 3 Aerodynamics and Airframe Configurations 25 3.1 Lift-induced Drag 25 3.2 Parasitic Drag 26 3.3 Rotary-wing Aerodynamics 29 3.4 Response to Air Turbulence 32 3.5 Airframe Configurations 34 3.6 Summary 42 References 43 4 Characteristics of Aircraft Types 45 4.1 Long-endurance, Long-range Role Aircraft 45 4.2 Medium-range, Tactical Aircraft 55 4.3 Close-range/Battlefield Aircraft 59 4.4 MUAV Types 66 4.5 MAV and NAV Types 68 4.6 UCAV 70 4.7 Novel Hybrid Aircraft Configurations 71 4.8 Research UAV 74 References 74 5 Design Standards and Regulatory Aspects 75 5.1 Introduction 75 5.2 United Kingdom 76 5.3 Europe 88 5.4 United States of America 88 5.5 Conclusion 89 References 89 6 Aspects of Airframe Design 91 6.1 Scale Effects 91 6.2 Packaging Density 93 6.3 Aerodynamics 94 6.4 Structures and Mechanisms 95 6.5 Selection of power-plants 101 6.6 Modular Construction 106 6.7 Ancillary Equipment 112 References 112 7 Design for Stealth 113 7.1 Acoustic Signature 114 7.2 Visual Signature 115 7.3 Thermal Signature 116 7.4 Radio/Radar Signature 117 7.5 Examples in Practice 118 Reference 126 8 Payload Types 127 8.1 Nondispensable Payloads 128 8.2 Dispensable Payloads 141 Reference 141 9 Communications 143 9.1 Communication Media 143 9.2 Radio Communication 144 9.3 Mid-air Collision (MAC) Avoidance 151 9.4 Communications Data Rate and Bandwidth Usage 151 9.5 Antenna Types 152 References 154 10 Control and Stability 155 10.1 HTOL Aircraft 155 10.2 Helicopters 159 10.3 Convertible Rotor Aircraft 163 10.4 Payload Control 165 10.5 Sensors 165 10.6 Autonomy 167 References 167 11 Navigation 169 11.1 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) 169 11.2 TACAN 170 11.3 LORAN C 170 11.4 Inertial Navigation 171 11.5 Radio Tracking 171 11.6 Way-point Navigation 172 References 172 12 Launch and Recovery 173 12.1 Launch 173 12.2 Recovery 177 12.3 Summary 181 13 Control Stations 183 13.1 Control Station Composition 183 13.2 Open System Architecture 185 13.3 Mini-UAV `Laptop' Ground Control Station 185 13.4 Close-range UAV Systems GCS 186 13.5 Medium- and Long-range UAV System GCS 190 13.6 Sea Control Stations (SCS) 195 13.7 Air Control Stations (ACS) 195 14 Support Equipment 197 14.1 Operating and Maintenance Manuals 197 14.2 Consumables 198 14.3 Replaceable Components 198 14.4 Vulnerable and On-condition Components 198 14.5 Tools 198 14.6 Subsidiary Equipment 199 15 Transportation 201 15.1 Micro-UAV 201 15.2 VTOL Close-range Systems 201 15.3 HTOL Close-range Systems 201 15.4 Medium-range Systems 202 15.5 MALE and HALE Systems 203 16 Design for Reliability 205 16.1 Determination of the Required Level of Reliability 206 16.2 Achieving Reliability 208 16.3 Reliability Data Presentation 210 16.4 Multiplexed Systems 212 16.5 Reliability by Design 213 16.6 Design for Ease of Maintenance 216 17 Design for Manufacture and Development 217 Part 2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF UAV SYSTEMS 221 18 Introduction to System Development and Certification 223 18.1 System Development 223 18.2 Certification 224 18.3 Establishing Reliability 224 19 System Ground Testing 227 19.1 UAV Component Testing 227 19.2 UAV Sub-assembly and Sub-system Testing 228 19.3 Testing Complete UAV 230 19.4 Control Station Testing 236 19.5 Catapult Launch System Tests 237 19.6 Documentation 237 20 System In-flight Testing 239 20.1 Test Sites 239 20.2 Preparation for In-flight Testing 240 20.3 In-flight Testing 242 20.4 System Certification 243 Part 3 THE DEPLOYMENT OF UAV SYSTEMS 245 21 Operational Trials and Full Certification 247 21.1 Company Trials 247 21.2 Customer Trials and Sales Demonstrations 248 22 UAV System Deployment 249 22.1 Introduction 249 22.2 Network-centric Operations (NCO) 251 22.3 Teaming with Manned and Other Unmanned Systems 252 23 Naval Roles 253 23.1 Fleet Detection and Shadowing 254 23.2 Radar Confusion 254 23.3 Missile Decoy 255 23.4 Anti-submarine Warfare 255 23.5 Radio Relay 256 23.6 Port Protection 256 23.7 Over-beach Reconnaissance 257 23.8 Fisheries Protection 257 23.9 Detection of Illegal Imports 257 23.10 Electronic Intelligence 257 23.11 Maritime Surveillance 258 23.12 Summary 258 24 Army Roles 259 24.1 Covert Reconnaissance and Surveillance 259 24.2 Fall-of-shot Plotting 261 24.3 Target Designation by Laser 261 24.4 NBC Contamination Monitoring 263 24.5 IED and Landmine Detection and Destruction 266 24.6 Electronic Intelligence 266 24.7 Teaming of Manned and Unmanned Systems 266 24.8 System Mobility 266 24.9 Persistent Urban Surveillance 267 25 Air Force Roles 269 25.1 Long-range Reconnaissance and Strike 269 25.2 Airborne Early Warning 269 25.3 Electronic Intelligence 269 25.4 Pre-strike Radar and Anti-aircraft Systems Counter 270 25.5 Interception 270 25.6 Airfield Security 270 26 Civilian, Paramilitary and Commercial Roles 273 26.1 Aerial Photography* 273 26.2 Agriculture 273 26.3 Coastguard and Lifeboat Institutions 274 26.4 Customs and Excise 275 26.5 Conservation 275 26.6 Electricity Companies 275 26.7 Fire Services 276 26.8 Fisheries 276 26.9 Gas and Oil Supply Companies 277 26.10 Information Services 277 26.11 Local Civic Authorities 277 26.12 Meteorological Services* 277 26.13 Traffic Agencies 277 26.14 Ordnance Survey 278 26.15 Police Authorities* 278 26.16 Rivers Authorities and Water Boards 278 26.17 Survey Organisations 278 26.18 Communications Relay 278 26.19 Landmine Detection and Destruction 279 26.20 Other Applications 279 References 279 Part 4 UAS FUTURE 281 27 Future Prospects and Challenges 283 27.1 Introduction 283 27.2 Operation in Civilian Airspace 284 27.3 Power-plant Development 288 27.4 Developments in Airframe Configurations 292 27.5 Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence 299 27.6 Improvement in Communication Systems 301 References 301 28 UAV Systems Continuing Evolution 303 28.1 Introduction 303 28.2 Cruise Missiles 304 28.3 World War II Systems 305 28.4 The 1950s 306 28.5 The 1960s 306 28.6 The 1970s 308 28.7 The 1980s 309 28.8 The 1990s 311 28.9 The 2000s 312 28.10 The 2010s 315 28.11 Into the Future 316 Appendix A: UAS Organisations 319 A.1 Conferences 319 A.2 Industry Associations 319 A.3 Press Organisations 320 A.4 Useful Websites 320 A.5 Test Site Facilities 320 A.6 Regulators 321 Index 323

About the Author

Leading aeronautical consultant Reg Austin co-founded the Bristol International Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) conferences in 1979, which are now the longest-established UAS conferences worldwide. In addition, Austin has over 40 years' experience in the design and development of UAS. One of Austin's programmes, the "Sprite UAV System" has been deployed around the world and operated by day and night, in all weathers.

Reviews

This book review is part of the Practical IndustrialApplications series on Startup Business Book Reviews, providingquality book reviews of the business books thatmatter. (Will Roney, 3 September2012)"Overall, the book is a useful guide to the wide subject ofunmanned aircraft and will sit comfortably on the shelves of bothinterested amateur and experienced professional." (RAeS AerospaceProfessional magazine, 1 April 2011)

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