Understanding Wine Technology
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Chapter 1 THE GIFT OF NATURE The origins of wine The natural cycle Enzymes in nature Wine and health - Alcohol - Phenolic compounds - Resveratrol - Potassium - Histamine - Ethyl carbamate - Sulfites (Sulfur dioxide) The modern paradox Chapter 2 IN THE VINEYARD The vine Factors influencing the vine Phylloxera & grafting Terroir Climate Training & pruning Soil and water Irrigation Green harvest and green operations Vineyard maintenance - Viticulture Raisonnee (La Lutte Raisonnee) - Organic viticulture - Biodynamic viticulture - Precision viticulture Chapter 3 INSIDE THE GRAPE Sugars Acids Mineral salts Phenolic compounds - Tannins - Anthocyanins - Other polyphenols Flavour components Proteins and colloids Veraison and maturity Chapter 4 THE ROLE OF OXYGEN Old-style winemaking Dissolved oxygen Anaerobic winemaking Antioxidants - Carbon dioxide - Nitrogen - Argon Sparging The positive role of oxygen Chapter 5 PRODUCING THE MUST Harvesting the grapes - Picking by hand - Machine harvesting Transport to the winery Sorting De-stemming Crushing the grapes Draining the juice Pressing the berries - The basket press - Horizontal screw press - Pneumatic press - Tank press - Continuous screw press Chapter 6 ADJUSTING THE MUST Sulfur dioxide Clarification (white and pink wines) - Settling - Centrifugation - Flotation Hyperoxidation Acidification Deacidification Enrichment Must concentration - Vacuum distillation - Cryoextraction (cryoconcentration) - Reverse osmosis Nutrients - Bentonite - Activated charcoal - Tannin Chapter 7 FERMENTATIONS Yeasts The action of yeasts Wild fermentation Cultured yeasts Control of temperature Monitoring the fermentation Stopping the fermentation A 'stuck' fermentation The malolactic fermentation Chapter 8 RED AND PINK WINE PRODUCTION Fermentation vessels Maceration Traditional punching down Submerged cap process Pumping-over systems Delestage (Rack and return) Autovinifier Rotary fermenters Thermovinification Flash release (Flash detente) Carbonic maceration (Maceration carbonique) Variants on carbonic maceration - Whole bunch fermentation - Whole berry fermentation Pink wines - Short maceration or direct press - Saignee - Vin d'une nuit Chapter 9 WHITE WINE PRODUCTION Dissolved oxygen Cool fermentation Skin contact (maceration pelliculaire) Tank vs. barrel Sur lie ageing and batonnage Sweet wines - Addition of grape concentrate - Addition of grape juice - Stopping the fermentation - Dehydrated grapes - Frozen grapes Chapter 10 SPARKLING AND FORTIFIED PROCESSES Sparkling wines - Traditional method - Artisanal method - Transfer method - Tank method (Cuve Close, Charmat, Metodo Italiano) - The Asti method - Carbonation ('Pompe bicyclette') Fortified wines (liqueur wines) - Vins doux naturels (VDN) - Port - Sherry - Madeira - Marsala Chapter 11 SPECIALITY WINES The technical revolution Organic wines vs. made from organic grapes Biodynamic wines Natural wines Vegan wines Kosher wines Does it make a better wine? Amber wines (Orange wines) Low alcohol wines Wine products Chapter 12 WOOD & MATURATION Type of wood Size of vessel Seasoning and toasting Fermentation in barrel Maturation in wood Putting the wood in the wine Micro-oxygenation Chapter 13 PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS OF WINE Alcohols Acids Esters Residual sugars Glycerol Aldehydes and ketones Phenolic compounds Chapter 14 CLARIFICATION AND FINING Is treatment necessary? Racking Protection from oxidation Blending Colloids Fining Fining agents - Ox blood - Egg white - Albumin - Gelatine - Isinglass (ichthyocol or colle de poisson) - Casein - Silica sol (Kieselsol) - Vegetal proteins - Bentonite - Tannin - Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) - Activated charcoal Other specialized fining agents Allergens Blue fining Chapter 15 TARTRATE STABILIZATION Natural and harmless? Cold stabilization Contact process Ion exchange Electrodialysis Metatartaric acid Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Mannoproteins Chapter 16 ADDITIVES Sulfur dioxide Ascorbic acid Sorbic acid Tartrate precipitation inhibitors Citric acid Malic, lactic and tartaric acids Tannins Acacia (Gum arabic) Copper sulfate or silver chloride Enzymes Chapter 17 FILTRATION Principles of filtration Depth filters - Kieselguhr filters (earth filters) - Sheet filters and lenticular filters Surface filters - Membrane filters (cartridge filters) - Crossflow filters (tangential filters) The future? Chapter 18 PACKAGING MATERIALS Containers - Glass bottles - Measuring container bottles (MCBs) - Plastic bottles - Aluminium cans - Bag-in-box (BIB) - Cardboard 'bricks' Closures - Natural cork - Technical corks - Synthetic closures - Aluminium screwcaps - Glass stoppers Capsules Labels Boxes and pallets Storage of packaging materials Recyclability and carbon footprint Chapter 19 STORAGE & BOTTLING Storage without change The final sweetening Shipping in bulk Preparation for bottling Traditional bottling Principles of modern bottling Bottling processes - Sterilization of bottling line - Bottle rinsing - Thermotic or Hot Bottling - Tunnel pasteurization - Flash pasteurization - Cold sterile filtration - Dimethyldicarbonate (DMDC) Maturation in bottle Chapter 20 QUALITY CONTROL & ANALYSIS Quality plan Records and traceability Laboratory analyses Permitted additives - Sulfur dioxide - Other additives Contaminants - Dissolved oxygen (DO) - Iron and copper - Sodium Clarity and filterability testing Microbiological analysis Advanced methods of analysis Chapter 21 QUALITY ASSURANCE Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) ISO 9000, 9001 and 9004 ISO 14001, 14004 and 14005 ISO 22000:2018 Supplier audits The BRC Global Food Standard Quality awards Chapter 22 WINE FAULTS Oxidation Reductive taint Beyond shelf life Light and heat damage Tartrate crystals Foreign bodies Musty taint Volatile acidity Second fermentation Iron casse Copper casse Mousiness Brett Geranium taint Grape contaminations - Mouldy tastes - Smoke and Eucalyptus taints - Ladybird (Ladybug) taint Chapter 23 LEGISLATION & REGULATIONS Who regulates the production of wine? Regulations regarding food safety Good Manufacturing Practice and food safety Traceability and lot marking Labelling regulations Allergen labelling regulations Permitted sizes Ingredient labelling Authorized winemaking techniques and ingredients Chapter 24 THE TASTE TEST Preparations for tasting Tasting (or drinking) glasses Styles of tasting - Tasting in front of the label - Comparative tasting - Blind tasting Writing a tasting note Tasting the wine Drinking - A few personal tips

About the Author

DAVID BIRD trained as an analytical chemist and entered the food manufacturing business as an analyst working with baby foods, mustard and fruit squashes. He moved into the wine trade in 1973 almost by chance, but in reality because a passion for wine was already developing. 1981 was his vintage year, becoming a Master of Wine, a Chartered Chemist and father to his first son. He specialises in quality assurance techniques, such as ISO 9000 and HACCP, and has been involved with wine activities and education in France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Algeria, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and England. NICOLAS QUILLE has more than 30 years of experience in the wine industry with an emphasis on winemaking, quality control, and winery management. He was born in Lyon, France, into a family that has worked in the wine business for three generations. He has made wine in Burgundy, Provence, the Rhone Valley, Champagne, the Douro Valley, Oregon, Washington and California. He holds a Master's Degree in Enology from the University of Dijon, a Post Graduate Degree in sparkling winery management from the University of Reims, and a Master of Business Administration from the University of Washington. In 2018, Nicolas became a Master of Wine. Besides his day job running wineries, he is a judge for several wine competitions, a wine educator, and speaker at wine conferences.

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