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UMTS Networks
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Table of Contents

Preface xi Acknowledgements xv PART ONE 1 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Specification Process for 3G 5 1.2 Introduction to the 3G Network Architecture 8 1.2.1 Conceptual Network Model 8 1.2.2 Structural Network Architecture 9 1.2.3 Resource Management Architecture 11 1.2.4 Bearer Architecture 13 2 Evolution from GSM to UMTS Multi-access 15 2.1 From Analogue to Digital 16 2.2 From Digital to Reachability 18 2.3 Jump to Packet World and Higher Speeds 19 2.4 3GPP Release 99 21 2.5 3GPP Release 4 24 2.6 3GPP Release 5 25 2.7 Trends beyond 3GPP Release 5 26 PART TWO 29 3 The Key Challenges Facing the Mobile Network Architecture 31 3.1 Radio Communication Constraints 31 3.2 Cellular Radio Communication Principles 36 3.3 Multi-access Techniques 39 3.4 Device Mobility 44 3.5 Network Transport 45 3.6 Transport Alternatives for UMTS 46 3.6.1 Asynchronous Transfer Mode in UMTS 48 3.6.2 IPTran sport 49 3.7 Network Management 51 3.7.1 High-level Architecture of a Network Management System 51 3.8 Spectrum and Regulatory 53 3.8.1 UMTS Spectrum Allocation 56 4 Overview of UMTS Radio Access Technologies 59 4.1 WCDMA Essentials 59 4.1.1 Basic Concepts 60 4.1.2 WCDMA Radio Channels 65 4.1.3 WCDMA Frame Structure 72 4.2 WCDMA Enhancement-HSDPA 75 4.2.1 Introduction 75 4.2.2 The Benefits and Impacts 76 4.2.3 Basic Concept 78 4.2.4 Adaptive Modulation and Coding 78 4.2.5 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request 80 4.2.6 Fast Scheduling 80 4.2.7 Seamless Cell Change 81 4.2.8 Basic Operation and Architectural Considerations 81 4.3 GSM/EDGE 83 4.3.1 Basic Concepts 83 4.3.2 Radio Channels and Frame Structures 85 4.3.3 General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) 89 4.3.4 Enhanced Data Rates for Global/GSM Evolution (EDGE) 91 4.4 WLAN Technology 93 4.4.1 Physical Technology 93 4.4.2 Medium Access Control 94 4.4.3 Network Formation 97 5 UMTS Radio Access Network 99 5.1 UTRAN Architecture 100 5.2 Base Station (BS, Node B) 101 5.2.1 Base Station Structure 101 5.2.2 Modulation Method 103 5.2.3 Receiver Technique 106 5.2.4 Cell Capacity 108 5.2.5 Control Functions in BS 110 5.3 Radio Network Controller (RNC) 110 5.3.1 Radio Resource Management (RRM) 112 5.3.2 UTRAN Control Functions 134 6 UMTS Core Network 143 6.1 UMTS Core Network Architecture 145 6.1.1 Core Network Entities that Are Common to All Domains and Subsystems 146 6.1.2 CS Domain 148 6.1.3 PS Domain 150 6.2 CN Management Tasks and Control Duties 152 6.2.1 Mobility Management (MM) 153 6.2.2 Communication Management (CM) 167 6.3 Charging, Billing and Accounting 173 6.3.1 Charging and Accounting 173 6.3.2 Billing 176 6.4 IPMu ltimedia Subsystem (IMS) 180 6.5 IPMu ltimedia Subsystem Fundamentals 181 6.6 IMS Entities and Functionalities 185 6.6.1 Call Session Control Functions (CSCFs) 185 6.6.2 Databases 188 6.6.3 Interworking Functions 189 6.6.4 Service-related Functions 190 6.6.5 Support Functions 191 6.6.6 Charging Functions 193 7 The UMTS Terminal 195 7.1 Terminal Architecture 195 7.2 Differentiation of Terminals 199 7.3 Terminal Capabilities 203 7.4 UMTS Subscription 203 7.5 User Interface 205 8 Services in the UMTS Environment 207 8.1 About Services in General 207 8.1.1 What Do Users Really Want? 208 8.1.2 How Can We Make Money out of This? 209 8.1.3 What Are the Most Adequate Design Principles in a Complex System? 210 8.1.4 Do Service-related Facts in Mobile Networks Differ from Those in Fixed Networks? 211 8.2 Quality of Service (QoS) 211 8.2.1 Traffic Classes and QoS Attributes 211 8.2.2 About QoS Mechanisms 216 8.2.3 ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) 217 8.2.4 Differentiated Services (DiffServ) 218 8.2.5 Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) 219 8.3 About Service Subsystems 221 8.3.1 Services Inherited from the GSM 221 8.3.2 UMTS SIM Application Toolkit (USAT) 223 8.3.3 Browsing Facilities 224 8.3.4 Location Communication Services (LCS) 226 8.3.5 IMS Service Mechanism-Messaging 248 8.3.6 IMS Service Mechanism-Presence 249 8.4 Conclusions 251 9 Security in the UMTS Environment 253 9.1 Access Security in UMTS 254 9.1.1 Legacy from 2G 255 9.1.2 Mutual Authentication 256 9.1.3 Cryptography for Authentication 258 9.1.4 Temporary Identities 261 9.1.5 UTRAN Encryption 262 9.1.6 Integrity Protection of Radio Resource Control (RRC) Signalling 264 9.1.7 Summary of Access Security 266 9.2 Additional Security Features in 3GPP R99 266 9.2.1 Ciphering Indicator 266 9.2.2 Identification of the UE 266 9.2.3 Security for Location Services (LCSs) 268 9.2.4 User-to-USIM Authentication 268 9.2.5 Security in Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) Application Toolkit 268 9.3 Security Aspects at the System and Network Level 268 9.3.1 Typical Security Attacks 269 9.3.2 Overview of 3GPP Network Domain Security 271 9.3.3 IPSecu rity (IPSec) 271 9.3.4 MAPSec 274 9.4 Protection of Applications and Services 274 9.4.1 IPMu ltimedia CN Subsystem (IMS) Security 275 9.4.2 Examples of Application-layer Security Mechanisms 279 9.4.3 Security for Session Layer 279 9.4.4 AAA Mechanisms 280 9.5 Lawful Interception 280 PART THREE 285 10 UMTS Protocols 287 10.1 Protocol Reference Architectures at 3GPP 287 10.1.1 The Radio Interface Protocol Reference Model 287 10.1.2 UTRAN Protocol Reference Model 289 10.1.3 The CN Protocol Reference Model 291 10.2 UMTS Protocol Interworking Architecture 294 10.3 Transport Network Protocols 297 10.3.1 Transport Network Protocol Architecture 297 10.3.2 WCDMA Physical Layer in the Uu Interface 299 10.3.3 Backbone Networking in Other Interfaces 300 10.3.4 UMTS Transport Network Protocols 308 10.4 Radio Network Protocols 318 10.4.1 Radio Network Control Plane 318 10.4.2 Radio Network User Plane 326 10.5 System Network Protocols 330 10.5.1 Non-Access Stratum Protocols 330 10.5.2 Control Plane between CN Nodes 339 10.5.3 The User Plane in the System Network 341 10.6 Summary of UMTS Network Protocols 341 10.7 Overview of IMS Protocols 345 11 Procedure Examples 351 11.1 Elementary Procedures 351 11.1.1 Paging 353 11.1.2 RRC Connection Set-up 354 11.1.3 Transaction Reasoning 356 11.1.4 Authentication and Security Control 357 11.1.5 Transaction Set-up with Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Allocation 358 11.1.6 Transaction 360 11.1.7 Transaction Clearing and RAB Release 360 11.1.8 RRC Connection Release 364 11.2 RRM Procedure Examples 364 11.2.1 Soft Handover-Link Addition and Link Deletion 364 11.2.2 SRNS Relocation-Circuit Switched 367 11.2.3 Inter-System Handover from UMTS to GSM-Circuit Switched 369 11.3 MM Procedure Examples 371 11.3.1 Cell Update 371 11.3.2 URA Update 373 11.3.3 Location Update to the CN CS Domain 373 11.3.4 Routing Area Update to the CN PS Domain 374 11.4 CC Procedure Example 376 11.5 Packet Data Example 378 11.6 IMS Examples 379 11.6.1 IMS Registration Example 380 11.6.2 IMS Session Example 383 List of Abbreviations 387 Bibliography 399 Index 401

About the Author

Heikki Kaaranen, Cellular System Consultant, OY Aqua Records Ltd, Jokela, FINLAND. Ari Ahtiainen, Senior Research Manager, Nokia Research Center, Mobile Networks, Nokia Group, FINLAND. Lauri Laitinen, Senior Research Engineer, Nokia Research Center, Mobile Networks, Nokia Group, FINLAND. Siamak Naghian, Competence Manager, NET IP Mobile Networks, Nokia Networks, Nokia Group, FINLAND. Valtteri Niemi, Nokia Research Center, Mobile Networks, Nokia Group, FINLAND.

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