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Preface to the fourth edition ix Acknowledgements x Section I: Introduction to movement 1 Chapter 1 Basic units, structure and function: supporting tissues, muscle and nerve 3 Framework and support: the connective tissues 4 Articulations 9 Skeletal muscle 12 Basic units of the nervous system 18 Muscle tone 27 Summary 29 Chapter 2 Movement terminology 31 The anatomical position 32 Planes and axes of movement 33 Structure and movements at synovial joints 34 Group action and types of muscle work 38 Biomechanical principles 41 Summary 49 Chapter 3 The central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord 50 PART I: THE BRAIN 51 Introduction to the form and structure 51 Cerebral hemispheres 56 Basal ganglia 65 Thalamus 66 Hypothalamus and limbic system 67 Brain stem 69 Cerebellum 71 Summary of brain areas: function in movement 73 Contents Tyldesley & Grieve?s Muscles, Nerves and Movement in Human Occupation PART II: THE SPINAL CORD 73 Position and segmentation of the spinal cord 73 Spinal reflex pathways 79 Summary of the functions of the spinal cord 82 Summary 82 Chapter 4 The peripheral nervous system: cranial and spinal nerves 84 Introduction 85 Spinal nerves 86 Peripheral nerves 90 Cranial nerves 92 Autonomic nervous system 96 Summary 99 Section II: Anatomy of movement in everyday living 101 Chapter 5 Positioning movements: the shoulder and elbow 103 Introduction 104 PART I: THE SHOULDER 105 The shoulder (pectoral) girdle 105 The shoulder (glenohumeral) joint 108 Muscles of the shoulder region 109 PART II: THE ELBOW 121 Elbow position and function 121 The elbow joint 121 Muscles moving the elbow 123 Summary of the shoulder and elbow in functional movements 127 Summary 129 Chapter 6 Manipulative movements: the forearm, wrist and hand 130 Introduction 131 Functions of the forearm and wrist 131 The forearm 131 The wrist 134 Functions of the hand 140 Movements of the hand: fingers and thumb 141 Muscles moving the hand: fingers and thumb 144 Types of grip 157 Summary of muscles of the forearm and intrinsic muscles of the hand 160 Summary 161 Chapter 7 Nerve supply of the upper limb 162 Introduction 163 The brachial plexus 163 Terminal branches of the brachial plexus 165 Tyldesley & Grieve?s Muscles, Nerves and Movement in Human Occupation Contents Axillary nerve: shoulder movement 165 Spinal segmental innervation of the upper limb 173 Summary 174 Chapter 8 Support and propulsion: the lower limb 175 Introduction 176 Joints and movements of the pelvis, thigh and leg 176 Muscles of the thigh and leg in support, swing and propulsion 183 Functions of the foot 197 Summary of the lower limb muscles 204 Summary 204 Chapter 9 Nerve supply of the lower limb 206 Introduction 207 Lumbar plexus: position and formation 207 Terminal branches of the lumbar plexus 207 Sacral plexus: position and formation 211 Terminal branches of the sacral plexus 211 Spinal segmental innervation of the lower limb 216 Summary 216 Chapter 10 Upright posture and breathing: the trunk 218 Introduction 219 Upright posture 220 Breathing 230 Pelvic tilt and the pelvic floor 236 Nerve supply of the muscles of the neck and trunk 238 Summary of the muscles of the trunk 239 Summary 239 Section III: Sensorimotor control of movement 241 Chapter 11 Sensory background to movement 243 Somatosensory system 244 Vestibular system 254 Visual system 256 Regulation of posture 258 Summary 259 Chapter 12 Motor control 261 Introduction 262 Spinal mechanisms 262 Descending motor system 267 Planning, co-ordination and motor learning 272 Summary 277 Contents Tyldesley & Grieve?s Muscles, Nerves and Movement in Human Occupation Section IV: Human occupation 279 Chapter 13 Occupational performance skills and capacities 281 Multiple factors in control of occupational performance skills 282 Core positions and patterns of occupational performance skills 286 Summary 300 Chapter 14 Occupational performance 301 Introduction 302 Framework for understanding human occupation 302 Case scenarios 305 PART I 306 Example case scenario 306 Further case scenarios 308 Case scenario 1: Mabel; the ageing process 308 Case scenario 2: Mary; Parkinson?s disease 310 Case scenario 3: John; traumatic brain injury 310 Case scenario 4: Patrick; hand injury 311 Case scenario 5: Christopher; spinal cord injury 311 Case scenario 6: Susan; chronic pain 312 PART II 313 Case scenario 1: Mabel; the ageing process 313 Case scenario 2: Mary; Parkinson?s disease 314 Case scenario 3: John; traumatic brain injury 316 Case scenario 4: Patrick; hand injury 317 Case scenario 5: Christopher; spinal cord injury 318 Case scenario 6: Susan; chronic pain 320 Conclusion 323 References 323 Further reading 324 Appendix I: Bones 326 Appendix II: Segmental nerve supply of muscles 336 Glossary 340 Index 354 Practice note-pad list 365
Ian McMillan is the Acting Head of Subject for the Department ofOccupational Therapy, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, QueenMargaret's University, Edinburgh. Gail Carin-Levy is Lecturer in Occupational Therapy for theDepartment of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health and SocialSciences, Queen Margaret's University, Edinburgh. June Grieve MSc BSc, formerly of the London School ofOccupational Therapy, London, UK. Barbara Tyldesley is formerly of the Department of OccupationalTherapy, Liverpool University.