During the last decade physicists, engineers and computer scientists have joined in an enormously fruitful dialogue about traffic and granular flow. Cars and sand grains have in common, that they interact irreversibly, which is the reason for similar jamming phenomena. The main difference is that car drivers choose their destination and route individually, while grains follow external driving forces. This book gives an overview about the progress in modelling, computer simulation, experiments and field observations, which was reached within the last two years. The contributions are based on the International Workshop Traffic and Granular Flow '01, which took place in Nagoya, 15 - 17 October 2001. Topics include a critical classification of models for highway traffic, new technological applications, friction and arching phenomena in pedestrian traffic, scale free networks and internet traffic, instabilities and fluctuations in avalanches and granular pipe flow.
Traffic Models: Theory.- Euler and Lagrange Representation of Traffic Models.- Three-Phase Traffic Theory.- Spacing-Oriented Analytical Approach to a Middle Traffic Flow CA Model Between FI-Type and NS-Type.- Continuum Traffic Equations from Microscopic Car-Following Models.- Metastable Flows in an Extended Burgers Cellular Automaton Traffic Model.- Existence and Classification of Travelling Wave Solutions to Second Order Highway Traffic Models.- Improved Optimal Velocity Model for Traffic.- Microscopic Modeling of Synchronized Traffic.- Limit Sets and the Rate of Convergence for One-Dimensional Cellular Automata Traffic Models.- Localized Defects in a Cellular Automaton Model for Traffic Flow with Phase Separation.- Asymmetric Optimal Velocity Model.- Chaos and Multifractality in a Time-Delay Car-Following Traffic Model.- Traffic Models: Application.- Optimal Velocity Model and its Applications.- Breakdown and Recovery in Traffic Flow Models.- Kinetic Theory of Traffic Flows.- The Generalized Fundamental Diagram of Traffic and Possible Applications.- Stochastic Resonance Towards Traffic Models.- An Interpretation of a Traffic Engineer on Vehicular Traffic Flow.- Congestion Induced by Bottlenecks in Two-Lane Optimal Velocity Traffic Flow Model.- Widely Extended Optimal Velocity Model of Traffic Flow their Linear Stability.- Stability of Multi-Lane Traffic Flow.- 8-Figured Hysteresis Loop of OV Model.- Empirical Traffic Data.- Observational Aspects of Japanese Highway Traffic.- Long-Term Traffic Data from Japanese Expressway.- The Local Occupation Probability Method for Evaluating Traffic Flows.- Telematics and Drivers' Behaviour.- Cooperative Driving: Taking Telematics to the Next Level.- Modeling of Vehicular Behavior from Road Traffic Engineering Perspectives.- ITS and the Revolution of Automobiles.- Modelling the Impact of ACC-Systems on the Traffic Flow at Macroscopic Modelling Level.- A Cellular Automaton Model for Dynamic Route Choice Behavior in Urban Roads.- Experimental Investigation of Day-to-Day Route Choice Behaviour.- Optimal Traffic States in a Cellular Automaton Model for City Traffic.- Traffic Flow Analysis Based on Multiagent.- Traffic Forecast Using a Combination of On-Line Simulation Traffic Data.- On-Ramp Control.- The Influence of Tollbooths on Highway Traffic.- Networks / Internet.- Packet Transport and Load Distribution in Scale-Free Networks.- Phase Transition of Three-Directional Traffic-Flow in 2D Network.- Analysis of Minimal Model of Internet Traffic.- Microscopic Modeling of Packet Transport in the Internet.- Granular.- Avalanches and Flow Dynamics of a Collapsing Granular Pile.- Note on a Micropolar Gas-Kinetic Theory.- Dynamics and Structure of Granular Flow Through a Vertical Pipe.- Asymmetric Random Average Process: Aggregation and Fragmentation on Continuous State Space.- Shape Segregation for Bidisperse Mixtures of Ellipses in Two Dimensions.- Bifurcations of a Driven Granular System under Gravity.- Simulation of the Impact of an Elastic Disk.- Granular Flow in Vertical Pipes: Transition from Dilute to Dense.- Spatial Structure of 1/f Noise in Granular Flow Through a Pipe.- Collisional Granular Flow on a Rough Slope and its Instability.- The Nature of Occurrence of Queued Flow at Capacity Bottleneck of Ordinary Section.- Pedestrian Dynamics.- Bionics-Inspired Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics.- Critical Discussion of "Synchronized Flow", Simulation of Pedestrian Evacuation, and Optimization of Production Processes.- Cellular Automaton Simulations of Pedestrian Dynamics and Evacuation Processes.- Modeling Pedestrians and Granular Flow in 2-Dimensional Optimal Velocity Models.- Evacuation Analysis of Ship by Multi-Agent Simulation Using Model of Group Psychology.- Comparison of an Evacuation Exercise in a Primary School to Simulation Results.- Simulations of Evacuation Using Small World Network.- Biology.- Oscillation Patterns in Cytoplasmic Networks of the Physarum Plasmodium.- Jamming Bacterial Traffic: Bioconvection.- Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Lubricating Films.