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Traffic Safety
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Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility).The subject of traffic is organized into two separate but complementary volumes: Volume 3 on Traffic Management and Volume 4 on Traffic Safety. Traffic Safety, Volume 4 of the Research for Innovative Transports Set, presents a collection of updated papers from the TRA 2014 Conference, highlighting the diversity of research in this field. Theoretical chapters and practical case studies address topics such as road safety management and policies, accident analysis and modeling, vulnerable road users' safety, road infrastructure safety, ITS and railway safety.
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xvii Preface xix Introduction xxiii George YANNIS and Simon COHEN Part 1. Road Safety Policy 1 Chapter 1. Analysis of Road Safety Management Systems in Europe 3 Nicole MUHLRAD, Gilles VALLET, Ilona BUTLER, Victoria GITELMAN, Etti DOVEH, Emmanuelle DUPONT, Heike MARTENSEN, Pete THOMAS, Rachel TALBOT, Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU, George YANNIS, Luca PERSIA, Gabriele GIUSTINIANI, Klaus MACHATA and Charlotte BAX 1.1. Introduction 3 1.2. Methodology 4 1.3. Qualitative analyses of road safety management systems in Europe 7 1.4. Quantitative analyses 11 1.5. Conclusion 15 1.6. Key messages and recommendations 15 1.7. Acknowledgments 16 1.8. Bibliography 17 Chapter 2. Conceptualizing Road Safety Management through a Territorialized Complex System: Context and Goals 19 Thierry SAINT-GERAND, Mohand MEDJKANE, Abdelkrim BENSAID, Dominique FLEURY, Jean-Francois PEYTAVIN, Eliane PROPECK-ZIMMERMANN and Maroua BOUZID 2.1. Introduction 19 2.2. Methodological challenge: integration of different road safety concepts into territorial complex system modeling 20 2.3. A practical example: ZIVAG 27 2.4. Conclusion and followings 30 2.5. Bibliography 32 Chapter 3. Development of the European Road Safety Knowledge System 35 George YANNIS, Pete THOMAS, Nicole MUHLRAD, Heike MARTENSEN, Emmanuelle DUPONT, Letty AARTS, Petros EVGENIKOS and Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU 3.1. Introduction 35 3.2. Data/knowledge collecting and processing 37 3.3. Key road safety analyses and summaries 42 3.4. Conclusion and next steps 48 3.5. Acknowledgments 49 3.6. Bibliography 49 Part 2. Accident Analysis and Modeling 51 Chapter 4. Structural Time Series Modeling of the Number of Fatalities in Poland in Relation to Economic Factors 53 Ruth BERGEL-HAYAT and Joanna ZUKOWSKA 4.1. Introduction 53 4.2. Current state of knowledge 56 4.3. Methodology 57 4.4. The data 58 4.5. Results 65 4.6. Discussion 66 4.7. Conclusion and outlook 66 4.8. Bibliography 67 Chapter 5. Risk of Road Traffic Injuries for Pedestrians, Cyclists, Car Occupants and Powered Two-Wheel Users, based on a Road Trauma Registry and Travel Surveys, Rhone, France 69 Stephanie BLAIZOT, Francis PAPON, Mohamed MOULOUD HADDAK and Emmanuelle AMOROS 5.1. Introduction 69 5.2. Material and methods 70 5.3. Results and interpretation 73 5.4. Discussion and conclusions 81 5.5. Acknowledgments 83 5.6. Bibliography 83 Chapter 6. Development of Safety Performance Functions for Two-Lane Rural First-Class Main Roads in Hungary 87 Attila BORSOS, John N. IVAN and Gyula OROSZ 6.1. Introduction 87 6.2. Literature review 88 6.3. General overview of first-class main roads 89 6.4. Data collection and segmentation 91 6.5. Modeling 92 6.6. Discussion and conclusions 98 6.7. Acknowledgments 99 6.8. Bibliography 99 Part 3. Vulnerable Road Users' Safety 101 Chapter 7. Mobility and Safety of Powered Two-Wheelers in OECD Countries 103 Pierre VAN ELSLANDE, Veronique FEYPELL-DE LA BEAUMELLE, James HOLGATE, Kris REDANT, Helene DE SOLERE, Dimitris MARGARITIS, George YANNIS, Eleonora PAPADIMITRIOU, Saskia DE CRAEN, Lars INGE HASLIE, Juan MUGUIRO and Per-Olov GRUMMAS GRANSTROEM 7.1. Introduction 103 7.2. Mobility and safety figures of PTWs 105 7.3. Contributory factors of PTW crashes 108 7.4. Toward an integrated road safety strategy for PTW 109 7.5. Measures for PTW safety improvement 111 7.6. Key messages and recommendations 113 7.7. Bibliography 115 Chapter 8. Comparison of Car Drivers' and Motorcyclists' Drink Driving in 19 Countries: Results from the SARTRE 4 Survey 119 Julien CESTAC, Cecile BARBIER, Gian-Marco SARDI, Richard FREEMAN, Sami KRAIEM and Jean-Pascal ASSAILLY 8.1. Introduction 119 8.2. Method 120 8.3. Results 122 8.4. Discussion 126 8.5. Acknowledgments 127 8.6. Bibliography 128 Chapter 9. Trajectories of Multiple People in Crowds Using Laser Range Scanner 131 Ladji ADIAVIAKOYE, Patrick PLAINCHAULT, Marc BOURCERIE and Jean-Michel AUBERLET 9.1. Introduction 131 9.2. Approach 132 9.3. Detection 137 9.4. Multiple tracking 139 9.5. Experimental results 140 9.6. Conclusions 142 9.7. Bibliography 142 Chapter 10. Safety of Urban Cycling: A Study on Perceived and Actual Dangers 145 Anita GRASER, Michael ALEKSA, Markus STRAUB, Peter SALEH, Stephan WITTMANN and Gernot LENZ 10.1. State of urban cycling 145 10.2. Perceived safety of urban cycling 148 10.3. The Austrian accident database 151 10.4. Comparison of perceived safety and recorded accidents 153 10.5. Conclusion and outlook 157 10.6. Acknowledgments 158 10.7. Bibliography 158 Part 4. Road Infrastructure Safety 161 Chapter 11. Speed Distribution and Traffic Safety Measures 163 Anna VADEBY and Asa FORSMAN 11.1. Introduction and aim of the study 163 11.2. Method 165 11.3. Results 167 11.4. Discussion 173 11.5. Acknowledgments 175 11.6. Bibliography 175 Chapter 12. Ex-ante Assessment of a Speed Limit Reducing Operation - A Data-driven Approach 177 Maurice ARON, Regine SEIDOWSKY and Simon COHEN 12.1. Introduction 177 12.2. Method for predicting the injury or fatality accident count 178 12.3. The part of the ALLEGRO motorway network concerned with speed limit reduction 183 12.4. Ex-ante assessment results of the speed decrease in the ALLEGRO motorway network 184 12.5. The threefold validation of the approach 190 12.6. Conclusions 192 12.7. Appendix: relationships between injury accidents and traffic conditions estimated from the Marius network 193 12.8. Bibliography 197 Chapter 13. Development of a Guideline for the Selection of Vehicle Restraint Systems - Identification of the Key Selection Parameters 199 Francesca La TORRE, Ceki ERGINBAS, Robert THOMSON, Giuseppina AMATO, Bine PENGAL, Peter SALEH, Chris BRITTON and Kris REDANT 13.1. Introduction 199 13.2. Objectives of the first work package of the SAVeRS project 201 13.3. Collation and examination of national guidelines and standards 201 13.4. Collation and examination of published literature 204 13.5. Conclusions 211 13.6. Acknowledgments 212 13.7. Follow-up 212 13.8. Bibliography 213 Chapter 14. For the Vision of "Zero Accidents at Intersections": A Challenge between Road Safety and Capacity 217 Jean Emmanuel BAKABA and Joerg ORTLEPP 14.1. Introduction 217 14.2. Traffic turning left at signal-controlled intersections 218 14.3. Recommendations 230 14.4. Conclusion 231 14.5. Bibliography 232 Chapter 15. Safety Inspection and Management of the Road Network in Operation 233 Salvatore CAFISO, Alessandro DI GRAZIANO, Grazia LA CAVA and Giuseppina PAPPALARDO 15.1. Introduction 233 15.2. Road safety inspection tools in Europe 235 15.3. Design of new software tools for road inspection 239 15.4. Case study 246 15.5. Conclusion 248 15.6. Bibliography 248 Part 5. ITS and Safety 251 Chapter 16. Improving Safety and Mobility of Vulnerable Road Users Through ITS Applications 253 Johan SCHOLLIERS, Daniel BELL, Andrew MORRIS, Alejandra Beatriz GARCIA MELENDEZ and Oscar Martin PEREZ 16.1. Introduction 253 16.2. Methodology 254 16.3. Accident data analysis and identification of critical scenarios 256 16.4. User needs analysis 258 16.5. ITS applications for the critical scenarios and user needs 260 16.6. Results 260 16.7. Conclusions 265 16.8. Acknowledgments 268 16.9. Bibliography 268 Chapter 17. Experimentation with the PRESERVE VSS and the Score@F System 271 Rim MOALLA, Brigitte LONC, Gerard SEGARRA, Marcello LAGUNA, Panagiotis PAPADIMITRATOS, Jonathan PETIT and Houda LABIOD 17.1. Introduction 271 17.2. Test methodology 273 17.3. Performance indicators 274 17.4. Test environment 274 17.5. Test case description 278 17.6. Test results 281 17.7. Conclusion 281 17.8. Acknowledgments 282 17.9. Bibliography 282 Chapter 18. Safety Bus Routing for the Transportation of Pupils to School 283 Eleni CHALKIA, Josep Maria SALANOVA GRAU, Evangelos BEKIARIS, Georgia AYFANDOPOULOU, Chiara FERARINI and Evangelos MITSAKIS 18.1. Introduction 283 18.2. The school bus routing problem 284 18.3. Methodology for solving the SBRP in SAFEWAY2SCHOOL 285 18.4. Application to Thessaloniki 294 18.5. Conclusions 297 18.6. Acknowledgments 298 18.7. Bibliography 298 Chapter 19. Spreading Awareness of Traffic Safety through Web Application 301 Miha AMBROÂ , Jernej KORINSEK and Ivan PREBIL 19.1. Introduction 301 19.2. Current state of traffic accident data in Slovenia 302 19.3. Identification of conflict points 307 19.4. Application structure 308 19.5. Use of the web application 312 19.6. Conclusion 315 19.7. Acknowledgments 316 19.8. Bibliography 316 Part 6. Railway Safety 317 Chapter 20. Overview of Freight Train Derailments in the EU: Causes, Impacts, Prevention and Mitigation Measures 319 Cristian ULIANOV, Francois DEFOSSEZ, Gordana VASI? FRANKLIN and Mark ROBINSON 20.1. Introduction 319 20.2. Research methodology 320 20.3. Results and discussion 322 20.4. Conclusions and recommendations 334 20.5. Acknowledgment 335 20.6. Bibliography 335 Chapter 21. A Risk Assessment Tool for Public Transportation 337 Andrea SOEHNCHEN and Mihai BARCANESCU 21.1. Security - a growing concern for Public Transport operators 337 21.2. The risk assessment procedure 338 21.3. Conclusions 345 21.4. Acknowledgments 346 21.5. Bibliography 346 Chapter 22. The GETAWAY Project - Improving Passenger Evacuation Techniques in Railway Stations (and Other Transport Hubs) 347 Paul BRYANT and Christos GIACHRITSIS 22.1. Introduction 347 22.2. External factors 349 22.3. Objectives of the GETAWAY project 350 22.4. The GETAWAY system concept 351 22.5. The GETAWAY-IADSS development 354 22.6. The Active Dynamic Signage System (ADSS) 355 22.7. Fire Detection System (FDS) development 356 22.8. CCTV Analysis Engine (CAE) 357 22.9. Decision Engine (DE) and Evacuation Simulation Engine (ESE) 357 22.10. The level of IADSS application 358 22.11. Evaluation of the GETAWAY system 359 22.12. Conclusion 363 22.13. Acknowledgments 364 22.14. Bibliography 364 Chapter 23. Interpretive Structural Modeling of Security Systems for Better Security Management in Railways 367 Anoop SRIVASTAVA, Sanjeev SWAMI and Devender BANWET 23.1. Introduction 367 23.2. Complexity of railway systems 368 23.3. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) 369 23.4. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) 370 23.5. Policy implications 376 23.6. Conclusions and avenues for future research 376 23.7. Acknowledgments 377 23.8. Bibliography 377 List of Authors 379 Index 387

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