Born in Edinburgh, raised in nearby Dunbar, birthplace of conservationist John Muir. In 1973, initiated the first survey of the Callanish Stone Circles in Scotland, following in 1976 with a landmark scientific expedition to the Tayos Caves of Ecuador, of which astronaut-professor Neil Armstrong was Honorary President and participant. Discovered the only authenticated natural diamond ever found in Ecuador and asserts El Dorado was clandestinely mined by the Spaniards until the Jivaro-Shuar rebellion of 1599... also that Chan Chan in Peru and Teotihuacan in Mexico are the sites of Claudius Ptolemy's lost cities of Cattigara and Acadthra. In 1993, initiated project Tayu Waa targeting World Heritage status for 100,000Km2 of traditional Shuar-Achuar territory in Upper Amazonia, for which efforts he was nominated for an Ecuadorian Blue Planet Award and elected International Representative and Honorary Brother for life of the Federation Shuar. In 1998, rescued thousands of Ecuadorian artifacts representative of the formative cultures of the Americas, asserting these cultures originated in the coastal regions of Ecuador.