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Syntax: A Generative Introduction
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This book provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the major issues in syntactic theory, including phrase structure, the lexicon, case theory, movement, and locality conditions. Written primarily in the Principles and Parameters framework, the text also includes an introduction to Minimalism and gives a brief survey of both Lexical-Functional Grammar and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. It contains numerous exercises, including foreign language problem sets, designed both to cement foundational knowledge and to take the student to the next level. The balanced presentation guides the student through complicated analyses, pointing out common mistakes and how to avoid them. Syntax provides a thorough grounding in all areas of generative syntax and prepares the reader for more advanced study. It is supported by an instructor's manual and online resources for students and instructors: http://www blackwellpublishing.com/carnie.
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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments Part 1: Preliminaries: 1. Generative Grammar. 0. Preliminaries 1. Syntax as a Cognitive Science 2. Modeling Syntax 3. Syntax as Science - the Scientific Method An Example of the Scientific Method as Applied to Syntax Sources of Data 4. Where do the Rules Come From? Learning vs. Acquisition Innateness: Language as an Instinct The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition Other Arguments for UG Explaining Language Variation 5. Choosing among Theories about Syntax 6. The Scientific Method and the Structure of this Textbook 7 Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 2. Parts of Speech. 0. Words and Why They Matter to Syntax 1. Determining Part of Speech The Problem of Traditional Definitions Distributional Criteria 2. The Major Parts of Speech: N, V, Adj, and Adv Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs 3. Open vs. Closed; Lexical vs. Functional Open vs. Closed Parts of Speech Lexical vs. Functional Some Functional (Closed) Categories of English Summary 4. Subcategories and Features Subcategories of Nouns Subcategories of Verbs 5. Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 3. Constituency, Trees, and Rules. 0. Introduction 1. Rules and Trees Noun Phrases (NPs) Adjective Phrases (AdjPs) and Adverb Phrases (AdvPs) Prepositional Phrases (PPs) Verb Phrases (VPs) Clauses Summary 2. How to Draw a Tree Bottom-up Trees The Top-down Method of Drawing Trees Bracketed Diagrams 3. Modification and Ambiguity 4. Constituency Tests 5. Summary and Conclusion Appendix: How to do Foreign Language PSR Problems A1. Doing problems with word-by-word glosses A2. Doing problems without word-by-word glosses Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 4. Structural Relations. 0. Introduction 1. The Parts of a Tree 2. Domination Domination Exhaustive Domination Immediate Domination 3. Precedence 4. C-command 5. Grammatical Relations 6. Summary and Conclusions Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 5. Binding Theory. 0. Introduction 1. The Notions Coindex and Antecedent 2. Binding 3. Locality Conditions on the Binding of Anaphors 4. The Distribution of Pronouns 5. The Distribution of R-expressions 6. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets Part 2: The Base: 6. X-bar Theory. 0. Introduction 1. Bar-level Projections V-bar Adj-bar and Adv-bar P-bar 2. Generalizing the Rules: The X-bar Schema 3. Complements, Adjuncts, and Specifiers Complements and Adjuncts in NPs Complements and Adjuncts in VPs, AdjPs, AdvPs, and PPs The Notion Specifier 4. Some Definitional Housekeeping 5. Parameters of Word Order 6. Drawing Trees in X-bar Notation Important Considerations in Tree Drawing A Sample Tree 7. X-bar Theory: A Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 7. Extending X-bar Theory to Functional Categories. 0. Introduction 1. Determiner Phrases (DPs) 2. A Descriptive Tangent into Clause Types 3. Complementizer Phrases (CPs) 4. Tense Phrases (TPs) 5. CP, TP, DP tree Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 8. Constraining X-bar Theory: The Lexicon. 0. Introduction 1. Some Basic Terminology 2. Thematic Relations and Theta Roles 3. The Lexicon 4. Expletives and the Extended Projection Principle5. Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets Part 3: Movement: 9. Head-to-Head Movement. 0. Introduction 1. Verb Movement (V - > T) French Irish2. T Movement (T - > C) 3. Do-support 4. Multiple Auxiliaries and Affix-hopping in English Multiple Auxiliaries Affix-hopping 5. Summary Appendix: Tests for Determining if a Language has V - > T or Affix LoweringIdeas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 10. DP Movement. 0. Introduction 1. A Puzzle for the Theory of Theta Roles 2. Passives 3. Case 4. Raising: Reprise 5. Passives: Reprise 6. Closing Up a Loose End 7. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 11. Wh-movement. 0. Introduction 1. Movement in Wh-questions 2. Islands 3. The Minimal Link Condition Wh-islands and the Minimal Link Condition The MLC in DP Movement and Head Movement 4. Echo Questions (Wh-in-situ) in English 5. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 12. A Unified Theory of Movement. 0. Introduction 1. Move 2. Explaining Cross-linguistic Differences 3. Scope, Covert Movement, and The MLC MLC Effects in Wh-in-situ Languages English Quantifiers and Scope 4. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets Part 4: Advanced Topics: 13. Expanded VPs. 0. Introduction 1. The Problem of Ditransitive Verbs 2. Light Verbs 3. Object Shift 4. Ditransitives: Reprise Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 14. Raising, Control, and Empty Categories. 0. Introduction 1. Raising vs. Control Two Kinds of Theta Grids for Main Predicates Distinguishing Raising from Control What is PRO? 2. Two Kinds of Raising, Two Kinds of Control Two Kinds of Raising Two Kinds of Control Summary of Predicate Types 3. Control Theory 4. Another Kind of Null Subject: "Little" pro 5. Summary Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets 15. Advanced Topics in Binding Theory.0. A Quick Review of Chapter 5 Binding Theory 1. Levels of Representation 2. The Definition of Binding Domain A Miscellany of Domain Violations Anaphors Pronouns Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Sets Challenge Problem Sets Part 5: Alternatives: 16. Lexical-Functional Grammar. 0. Alternative Theories 1. C-structure 2. Functions 3. The Lexicon 4. F-structure Why F-structures? 5. Assorted Phenomena Head Mobility Passives Raising and Control Wh-movement: Long Distance Dependencies 6. Conclusion Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Set Challenge Problem Sets 17. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. 0. Introduction 1. Features 2. The Lexicon 3. Rules, Features, and Trees 4. Binding 5. Long Distance Dependencies Ideas Introduced in this Chapter Further Reading General Problem Set Challenge Problem Sets Conclusions and Directions for Further Study. References Index.

About the Author

Andrew Carnie is Assistant Professor of Linguistics at the University of Arizona. He is co-moderator (with Helen Dry and Anthony Aristar) of the Linguist List, and is co-editor (with Eithne Guilfoyle) of The Syntax of Verb Initial Languages (2000).

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