List of Illustrations xii Acknowledgments xv Introduction 1 Sports in American Culture 2 Sports and American History 3 Notes 6 1 The Emergence of Organized Sports, 1607 1860 7 Games in Colonial New England 8 Recreations in Southern Colonies 10 The Revolutionary Era and Beyond 14 The Democratization of Racing: The Trotters 17 Racing by Land and Sea 19 The Formative Years of Prizefi ghting 22 Baseball: The Creation of America s Game 27 Notes 31 2 Baseball: America s Game 33 The Early Professional Era 35 Henry Chadwick and a Game of Numbers 38 Growing Pains 40 Early Years of the Professional Game 42 Emergence of the Modern Game 46 The 1880s: A Decade of Rancor 48 Notes 51 3 Sports and the Emergence of Modern America, 1865 1920 53 Prizefi ghting Enters the Mainstream 54 Sports and Social Class 58 Strong Bodies and Devout Souls 62 America s Greatest Athlete 66 Organized Play for the Modern Era 69 Interscholastic Sports 71 Notes 72 4 The Emergence of King Football, 1869 1920 74 The Early Years of College Athletics 75 Football American Style 76 Yale and the Creation of Football 78 Football Moves West 82 Football as Spectacle 85 Football in Crisis 87 Notes 94 5 The National Pastime: Baseball, 1890 1930 95 The 1890s: Years of Discord 96 Ban Johnson and the American League 98 The Cyclone and the Georgia Peach 100 Masters of Strategy 103 The Federal League Challenge 105 Crisis: Gamblers Fix the World Series of 1919 106 The Babe 112 Baseball s Golden Age 116 Notes 118 6 Playing Nice: Women and Sports, 1860 1945 120 The Early Years of Women s Sports 121 The Demise of Women s Sports 126 Helen and Trudy: America s First Women Sports Stars 127 Babe: The Texas Tomboy 129 Women Play Hardball: The Peaches and the Chicks 134 The Instinctive Urge to Compete 136 Notes 137 7 Sports in the Age of Ballyhoo, Depression, and War, 1920 1945 139 Gee Whiz: Sports Journalism during the 1920s 140 Heroes for a Heroic Age 143 Growing Pains: The National Football League 146 Boxing Gains Respectability 148 Baseball s Long Slump 151 Seabiscuit: Sports Star for the Depression Era 157 Baseball during the War Years 160 Notes 161 8 Sports on Campus, 1920 1950 163 The Essential Myth of Big-Time College Athletics 163 Football: Driving the Bus 166 Football s Golden Age: The Twenties 168 Knute Rockne and the Making of Notre Dame Football 171 The Second Challenge to Big-Time Football 176 Hoop Dreams 179 Hoop Nightmares 181 Notes 184 9 America s Great Dilemma 185 The Fight of the Century 186 Separate and Unequal: The Negro Leagues 190 Out of the Cotton Fields of Alabama: Jesse and Joe 194 Jackie 200 In the Shadow of Jackie Robinson 204 Gentlepeople and Sanctimonious Hypocrites 206 The Baron and the Bear 210 Notes 214 10 The Thrill of Victory, the Agony of Defeat : Television Revolutionizes Sports 217 The Formative Years of Sports Television 218 Tale of the Tube: Boxing 221 Professional Football Comes of Age 223 Pete and Roone 225 Super Sunday and Monday Night Madness 229 ESPN: All Sports, All the Time 233 Notes 237 11 The Big Business of College Sports 239 The Sanity Code Is Scuttled 240 Creation of a Cartel 241 Emphasis and De-emphasis 242 Woody and the Bear 243 The Wizard of Westwood 249 Madness in March 254 The NCAA as Enforcer 256 Intercollegiate Athletics: Education or Big Business? 259 Turmoil, Realignment, and a Playoff System 263 The Futility of Reform 264 Trouble in Happy Valley 266 Notes 271 12 Play for Pay: Professional Sports in America 273 A Tale of Three Cities 273 Urban Relocation, Redevelopment, and Promotion 276 The Economics of Organized Baseball 278 Baseball s Labor Disputes 284 The Magic of Parity: The National Football League 287 The Wondrous World of Magic, Larry, and Michael 291 Always Turn Left: NASCAR Takes the Checkered Flag 295 Beyond the Bright Lights: Hockey and Soccer 302 Notes 304 13 Do You Believe in Miracles? 306 The Cold War Shapes the Olympics 309 Television Transforms the Olympics 316 The Games Must Go On 320 To Boycott or Not to Boycott 323 The Triumph of Professionalism 325 Athens and Beyond 328 Notes 330 14 The Persistent Dilemma of Race 331 I m the Greatest 333 Boycott, Backlash, and Beyond 337 Breakthrough: A New Era in American Sports 340 Hank Aaron Catches the Babe 347 Can White Men Jump? 349 Tiger 353 Sister Act: Venus and Serena 358 Notes 363 15 Playing Nice No Longer: Women s Sports, 1960 2015 365 Deceit and Deception: The NCAA and Gender Equity 366 Titanic Rivalry: Connecticut/Tennessee Basketball 371 Billie Jean Sparks a Revolution 377 Viva America! World Cup Winners 381 You ve Come a Long Way Baby! Or Have You? 384 Title IX at Forty 387 Notes 389 16 Only in America! 391 Triumph of the Swoosh 392 The World of Jimmy the Greek 396 The Tragedy of Pete Rose 399 The Demise of Boxing 403 Iron Mike and the King of Boxing 405 Whatever It Takes 409 Under a Cloud: Barry Bonds Chases Hank Aaron 416 Notes 419 17 The Democratization of Sports 421 Community Cauldron: High School Sports 421 Youth Sports 425 Golf s Golden Age: Arnie, the Super Mex, and the Golden Bear 430 A Tale of Two American Cyclists 436 Sidewalk Surfing and the Rise of X-treme Sports 441 Notes 448 Epilogue 451 Notes 460 Index 462
Richard O. Davies is Distinguished Professor of History, Emeritus, at the University of Nevada, Reno. His books include Rivals! The Ten Greatest American Sports Rivalries of the 20th Century (Wiley, 2010), Sports in American Life: A History (Wiley, 2007, 2012), Betting the Line: Sports Wagering in American Life (2001), and Main Street Blues: The Decline of Small-Town America (1998). Davies was inducted into the Nevada Writers Hall of Fame in 2013 and continues to pursue an active retirement.