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Sources of the Western Tradition, Volume 2

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Table of Contents

Part I: EARLY MODERN EUROPE. 1. The Rise of Modernity. 1. The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity: Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and A Humanist Educational Program. 2. Human Dignity: Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man. 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory: Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince. 4. The Lutheran Reformation: Martin Luther, On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy. 5. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. 6. A Secular Defense of Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. 7. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution: The English Declaration of Rights. 2. The Scientific Revolution. 1. The Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Cardinal Bellarmine, Attack on the Copernican Theory. 2. Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition. 3. Prophet of Modern Science: Francis Bacon, Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science. 4. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method: William Harvey, The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. 5. The Autonomy of the Mind: Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method. 6. The Mechanical Universe: Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica. 3. The Enlightenment. 1. The Enlightenment Outlook: Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty: John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. 3. Attack on Religion: Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach, Good Sense. 4. Epistemology: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude Helvetius, Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man. 5. Compendium of Knowledge: Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. 6. Rousseau: Political Reform: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract. 7. Humanitarianism: Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard, Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia "Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce..."; Marquis de Condorcet, The Evils of Slavery. 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society: Voltaire, Candide; Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. 9. On the Progress of Humanity: Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind. Part II: MODERN EUROPE. 4. Era of the French Revolution. 1. Abuses of the Old Regime: Grievances of the Third Estate; Emmanuel Sieyes, What is the Third Estate? 2. The Role of the Philosophes: Alexis de Tocqueville, Critique of the Old Regime. 3. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. 4. Expansion of Human Rights: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women; Society of the Friends of Blacks, Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade; Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790. 5. The Jacobin Regime: Maximilien Robespierre, Republic of Virtue; General Louis de Lignieres Turreau, Uprising in the Vendee. 6. Demands for Economic Justice: Gracchus Babeuf, Conspiracy of the Equals. 7. Napoleon: Destroyer and Preserver of the Revolution: Napoleon Bonaparte, Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer. 5. The Industrial Revolution. 1. Early Industrialization: Edward Baines, Britain's Industrial Advantages and the Factory System; Adam Smith, The Division of Labor. 2. The New Science of Political Economy: Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations; Thomas R. Malthus, On the Principle of Population. 3. The Dark Side of Industrialization: Sadler Commission, Report on Child Labor; James Phillips Kay, Moral and Physical Dissipation; Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England. 4. Factory Discipline; Factory Rules. 5. The Capitalist Ethic: Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift. 6. Reformers: Robert Owen, A New View of Society. 6. Romanticism, Reaction, Revolution. 1. Romanticism: William Wordsworth, Tables Turned; William Blake, Milton; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust. 2. Conservatism: Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France; Klemens von Metternich, The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes; Joseph de Maistre, Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions. 3. Liberalism: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. 4. Rise of Modern Nationalism: Ernst Moritz Arndt, The War of Liberation; Giuseppe Mazzini, Young Italy. 5. Repression: Karlsbad Decrees. 6. 1848: The Year of Revolutions; Flora Tristan, "Workers, Your Condition...Is Miserable and Distressing"; Alexis de Tocqueville, The June Days. 7. Thought and Culture in an Age of Science and Industry. 1. Realism in Literature: Vissarion Belinsky, The Poetry of Reality; Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House. 2 Theory of Evolution: Charles Darwin, Natural Selection. 3. The Socialist Revolution: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto. 4. The Evolution of Liberalism: L. T. Hobhouse, Justification for State Intervention; Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State. 8. Politics and Society, 1845-1914. 1. The Lower Classes: Nikolaus Osterroth, The Yearning for Social Justice; William Booth, In Darkest England; Henry Mayhew, Prostitution in Victorian London. 2. Feminism and Antifeminism: John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women; Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant; The Goncourt Brothers, On Female Inferiority; Almroth E. Wright, The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage. 3. German Racial Nationalism; Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Importance of Race; Pan-German League, "There Are Dominant Races and Subordinate Races." 4. Anti-Semitism: Regression to the Irrational: Hermann Ahlwardt, The Semitic Versus the Teutonic Race; The Dreyfus Affair: The Henry Memorial; The Kishinev Pogrom, 1903; Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State. 9. European Imperialism. 1. The Spirit of British Imperialism: Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith; Joseph Chamberlain, The British Empire: Colonial Commerce and "The White Man's Burden"; Karl Pearson, Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified by Nature. 2. European Rule in Africa; Cecil Rhodes and Lo Bengula, "I Had Signed Away the Mineral Rights of My Whole Country"; Edmund Morel, The Black Man's Burden; Richard Meinertzhagen, An Embattled Colonial Officer in East Africa; German Brutality in Southwest Africa: Exterminating the Herero. 3. Chinese Resentment of Western Imperialism: The Boxer Rebellion. 4. Imperialism Debated: The Edinburgh Review, "We...Can Restore Order Where There Is Chaos, and Fertility Where There Is Sterility"; John Atkinson Hobson, An Early Critique of Imperialism. 10. Modern Consciousness. 1. The Futility of Reason and the Power of the Will: Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Notes from Underground. 2. The Overman and the Will to Power: Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power and The Antichrist. 3. The Unconscious: Sigmund Freud, The Unconscious and Civilization and Its Discontents. 4. The Political Potential of the Irrational: Gustave Le Bon, Mass Psychology. 5. Modern Art and the Questioning of Western Values: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Manifesto of Futurism. Part III: WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN CRISIS. 11. World War I. 1. Militarism: Heinrich von Treitschke, The Greatness of War; Friedrich von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War; Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde, The Young People of Today. 2. Pan-Serbism: Nationalism and Terrorism: The Black Hand. 3. War as Celebration: The Mood in European Capitals: Roland Doregeles, Paris: "That Fabulous Day"; Stefan Zweig, Vienna: "The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity"; Philipp Scheidemann, Berlin: "The Hour We Yearned For"; Bertrand Russell, London: "Average Men and Women Were Delighted at the Prospect of War." 4. Trench Warfare: Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front; Siegfried Sassoon, Base Details; Wilfred Owen, Disabled. 5. Women at War: Naomi Loughnan, Genteel Women in the Factories; Magda Trott, Opposition to Female Employment. 6. The Paris Peace Conference: Woodrow Wilson, The Idealistic View; Georges Clemenceau, French Demands for Security and Revenge. 7. The Bolshevik Revolution: Army Intelligence Report, The Breakdown of Military Discipline; V. I. Lenin, The Call to Power. 8. The War and European Consciousness: Paul Valery, Disillusionment; Erich Maria Remarque, The Lost Generation; Ernst von Salomon, Brutalization of the Individual; Sigmund Freud, A Legacy of Embitterment. 12. Era of Totalitarianism. 1. Modernize or Perish: Joseph Stalin, The Hard Line. 2. Forced Collectivization: Lev Kopelev, Terror in the Countryside. 3. Famine in Ukraine: Miron Dolot, Execution by Hunger. 4. Soviet Indoctrination: A. O. Avdienko, The Cult of Stalin; Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Literature as Propaganda. 5. Stalin's Terror: Nikita S. Khrushchev, Khrushchev's Secret Speech; Lev Razgon, True Stories. 6. The Rise of Italian Fascism; Benito Mussolini, Fascist Doctrines. 7. The Great Depression: Max Cohen, I Was One of the Unemployed; Heinrich Hauser, With Germany's Unemployed." 8. The Rise of Nazism: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf; Kurt G. W. Ludecke, The Demagogic Orator; Thomas Mann, "An Appeal to Reason." 9. The Leader-State: Ernst Rudolf Huber, "The Authority of the Fuhrer is... All-Inclusive and Unlimited." 10. The Nazification of Culture and Society: Jakob Graf, Heredity and Racial Biology for Students; Louis P. Lochner, Book Burning; Joseph Roth, "The Auto-Da-Fe of the Mind." 11. Persecution of the Jews: Hertha Nathorff, A German-Jewish Doctor's Diary; Marta Appel, Memoirs of a German-Jewish Woman; David H. Buffum, Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht). 12. The Anguish of the Intellectuals: Johan Huizinga, In the Shadow of Tomorrow; Nicolas Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity. 13. World War II. 1. Prescient Observers of Nazi Germany: Horace Rumbold, "Pacifism is the Deadliest of Sins"; George S. Messersmith, "The Nazis Were After . . . Unlimited Territorial Expansion." 2. Remilitarization of the Rhineland: William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary. 3. The Anschluss, March 1938: Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday. 4. The Munich Agreement: Neville Chamberlain, In Defense of Appeasement; Winston Churchill, "A Disaster of the First Magnitude." 5. World War II Begins: Adolf Hitler, "Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled with Germans." 6. The Fall of France: Heinz Guderian, "French Leadership... Could Not Grasp the Significance of the Tank in Mobile Warfare." 7. The Battle of Britain; Winston Churchill, "Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat." 8. Nazi Propaganda: For Volk, Fuhrer, and Fatherland: The Indoctrination of the German Soldier. 9. Stalingrad: A Turning Point: William Hoffman, Diary of a German Soldier; Anton Kuzmich Dragan, A Soviet Veteran Recalls. 10. The Holocaust: Hermann Graebe, Slaughter of Jews in Ukraine; Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz; Y. Pfeffer, Concentration Camp Life and Death. 11. Resistance: Albert Camus, "I Am Fighting You Because Your Logic is as Criminal as Your Heart"; Hans and Sophie Scholl, The White Rose; Marek Edelman, The Ghetto Fights: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943; Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Warsaw Rising, 1944. 12. D-Day, June 6, 1944; Historical Division, War Department, Omaha Beachhead. 13. The End of the Third Reich: Nerin E. Gun, The Liberation of Dachau; Margaret Freyer, The Fire-Bombing of Dresden; Joseph Goebbels, "The Morale of the German People, Both at Home and at the Front, Is Sinking Ever Lower"; Marie Neumann, "We're in the Hands of a Mob, Not Soldiers, and They're All Drunk Out of Their Minds"; Adolf Hitler, Political Testament. 14. The Defeat of Japan: Hiromichi Yahara, The Battle for Okinawa. 14. Europe: A New Era. 1. The Aftermath: Devastation and Demoralization: Theodore H. White, "Germany: Spring in the Ruins"; Gerold Frank, "The Tragedy of the DPs [Displaced Person]" ; A German Expellee from Czechoslovakia, "Germans were driven out of their homeland like dogs." 2. The Cold War: Winston Churchill, The "Iron Curtain"; Nikita S. Khrushchev, Report to the Twentieth Party Congress. 3. Communist Repression: Roy Medvedev, Stalin's Last Years; Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System; Andor Heller, The Hungarian Revolution, 1956. 4. The New Germany: Economic Miracle and Confronting the Past: Theodore H. White, "Germany is Alive and Vigorous Again"; Hannah Vogt, The Burden of Guilt; Richard von Weizsacker, "We Seek Reconciliation." 5. The Soviet Union: Restructuring and Openness: Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Perestroika. Part IV: THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD. 15. The West in an Age of Globalism. 1. The Collapse of Communism: Vaclav Havel, The Failure of Communism. 2. Russia: Creeping Autocracy and Burgeoning Nationalism: C. J. Chivers, Vladimir Putin: A New Tsar in the Kremlin? 3. Globalization: Patterns and Problems: Fareed Zakaria, "Democracy Has Its Dark Sides." 4. Female Oppression: United Nations Secretary-General, Ending Violence Against Women, "The Systematic Domination of Women by Men." 5. Child Soldiers: Ishmael Beah, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. 6. Radical Islamic Terrorism: Mary Habeck, Jihadist Ideology; European Union, Islamist Terrorism; Abdurrahman Wahid, "Right Islam vs. Wrong Islam: Muslims and Non-Muslims Must Unite to Defeat the Wahhabi Ideology." 7. Islam in Europe: Failure of Assimilation: Walter Laqueur, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent. 8. Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: United States State Department, Contemporary Global Anti Semitism: A Report Provided to the United States Congress. 9. In Defense of European Values: Jacques Ellul, The Betrayal of the West."

About the Author

Marvin Perry, now retired, taught history at Baruch College, City University of New York. He has published several successful Cengage Learning texts, including WESTERN CIVILIZATION: IDEAS, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY (senior author and general editor); WESTERN CIVILIZATION: A BRIEF HISTORY; the leading Western Civilization reader, SOURCES OF THE WESTERN TRADITION; AN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE; SOURCES OF EUROPEAN HISTORY SINCE 1900 (senior editor); HUMANITIES IN THE WESTERN TRADITION (senior author and general editor); and WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE: A CONCISE HISTORY. His scholarly work includes ARNOLD TOYNBEE AND THE WESTERN TRADITION (1996); coauthor of ANTISEMITISM: MYTH AND HATE FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT (2002); coeditor of ANTISEMITIC MYTHS: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ANTHOLOGY (2008); and coeditor of THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM: AN ANTHOLOGY (2008). Dr. Perry's scholarly work focuses on the history of ideas.


"I have used [Sources of the Western Tradition] for years and believe that it is one of the best sourcebooks on the market." "One major strength of this text is that in many of the chapters it includes works by women, works that deal with the lives of women or gender issues, as well as sexuality....Another strength is that within each chapter there is a readily apparent sub-heading for each group of documents, bringing them coherence and allowing the students to see the major topics within each chapter." "[Sources of the Western Tradition] covers all the possible topics of the course, it has a very rich selection of the documents, and the documents are of great quality."

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