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Sources in Medieval Culture and History
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This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for courses on medieval history, medieval literature, art history, and humanities. The wide range of primary sources featured in this book trace the development of medieval civilization from the era of the Roman Emperor Diocletian to the late fourteenth century. The events of these years are viewed from various perspectives, including selections from legal documents, annals, letters, contemporaneous biographies, paintings, theological and philosophical treatises, historical writings, architecture, and literary extracts. Author Kay Slocum has chosen the sources to integrate social and cultural history with more traditional material and, as a result, selections that inform the student about women and marginal groups in the medieval world are included alongside works that treat topics that are more common in the field.
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Table of Contents

Topical ContentsPrefaceIntroduction for the Student Chapter 1: The Threads of Medieval Civilization: The Late Roman Empire, Christianity, and the Germanic Migrations Imperial Administration and the Conversion to Christianity Diocletian and the Division of the Roman Empire1.1. Aurelius Victor, Lives of the Emperors1.2. Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum1.3. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices The Emperor Constantine1.4. The Conversion of Constantine1.5. The Edict of Milan1.6. The Council of Nicaea 1.7. The Nicene Creed1.8. Interpreting the Evidence: St Peter's Basilica and Constantine's Gift Early Christianity1.9. The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity1.10. The Confessions of Saint Augustine1.11. Saint Jerome: Letters1.12. Pope Leo I and the Petrine Theory1.13. The Election of Bishops 1.14. The Life of Saint Antony by Athanasius1.15. Interpreting the Evidence: The Rule of Saint Benedict and the Groundplan of St. Gall The Germanic Tribal Tradition Roman Views of the Germanic Tribes 1.16. Tacitus, Germania1.17. Ammianus Marcellinus, History of the Roman Empire1.18. Treaty with the Vandals (271)1.19. The Battle of Adrianople (378) Chapter 2: The Heirs of Rome: Germanic Kingdoms and the Byzantine Empire The Ostrogoths and Visigoths2.1Jordanes, The Origins and Deeds of the Goths2.2. Cassiodorus, Letters2.3. Cassiodorus, An Introduction to Divine and Human Readings2.4. Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy2.5. Isidore of Seville, The History of the Goths2.6. The Visigothic Code: Provisions Concerning Women The Franks2.7. The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks2.8.The Salic Law The Anglo-Saxons2.10. Beowulf2.11. Bede, A History of the English Church and People2.12. Letter to Queen Ethelburga from Pope Boniface2.13. Jonas, The Life of Saint Columban The Byzantine Empire 2.14. The Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian2.15. Interpreting the Evidence: Hagia Sophia and Description by Procopius 2.16. Interpreting the Evidence: Theodora and Justinian: The Mosaics at Ravenna and the Secret History by Procopius Chapter 3: The Rise of Islam Muhammad and the Qu'ran3.1. The Night of Destiny: Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad3.2. How the Qu'ran was Assembled3.3. The Five Pillars of Islam: Passages from the Qu'ran The Confession of Faith (shahada) Prayer (salat) Almsgiving (zakat) Ramadan Pilgrimage (hajj)3.4. Jihad: Passages from the Qu'ran and the Sayings of Muhammad3.5. Women in Islamic Society Founding of the Caliphate and the Expansion of Islam3.6. The Founding of the Caliphate and 3.7. The Accession Speech of Abu Bakr3.8. Abu Bakr on the Rules of War3.9. The Muslims Conquer Iberia3.10. The Treaty of Tudmir 3.11. The Pact of Umar Muslim Art and Culture3.12. Interpreting the Evidence: Al-Azhar Mosque and Documents of Support3.13. Interpreting the Evidence: Qibla, "Umar in Jerusalem" and the Qu'ran Poetic Voices from Islam3.14. An Arabic definition of poetry by Ibn Qutayba3.15. A Lyric from the Kitab al-Aghani (The Book of Songs) by Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani3.16. A Jewish Voice in al-Andalus: Samuel the Nagid 3.17. Scheherazade: A Tale from The Thousand and One Nights Chapter 4: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance The Coronation of Charlemagne4.1. Einhard: The Coronation4.2. The Biography of Pope Leo III4.3. The Annals of Lorsch4.4. A View from Byzantium: The Chronicle of Theophanes The Creation and Governance of the Empire 4.5. Einhard: Charlemagne's Wars Against the Saxons4.6. Missionary Activity in the Empire: Letter of Boniface to Pope Zacharias (742)4.7. Capitulary for Saxony (775-790)4.8. General Capitulary for the Missi Dominici (802) Royal Estates4.9. The Capitulary De Villis The Carolingian Renaissance and the Preservation of Classical Learning4.10. Interpreting the Evidence: Palatine Chapel at Aachen and Descriptions by Einhard and Notker Charlemagne's Educational Programs: A Link to the Future4.11. Einhard: The Emperor's Devotion to the Liberal Arts4.12. Notker "the Stammerer"4.13. De Litteris Colendis (On the Study of Letters)4.14. Interpreting the Evidence: Ivory Book Cover and De Diversis Artibus by Theophilus 4.15. A Carolingian Mother's Advice to her Son: Handbook for William by Dhuoda A World Destroyed: The Disintegration of the Empire4.16. The Treaty of Verdun (843) Viking, Muslim and Magyar Invasions4.17. The Annals of St. Bertin, 4.18. The Annals of Xanten 4.19. The Annals of St. Vaast4.20. The Magyars: An Account by Liudprand of Cremona4.21. Normans in France: The Baptism of Rollo Chapter 5: The Development of Vassalage and Agricultural Change Aristocratic Life: the Experience of the Knight Rituals of Homage and Fealty 5.1. The Homage Ceremony 5.2. Immixtio manuum 5.3. Homage to Several Lords Obligations of Vassals5.4. Feudal Aids5.5. Inheritance provisions The Rituals of Knighting from the Book of Chivalry by Geoffroi de Charny5.6. The Knighting Ceremony Medieval Warfare and the Peace and Truce of God5.7. Peace of God, proclaimed in the Synod of Charroux (989)5.8. Truce of God, proclaimed by the Archbishop of Arles (1035-41) Interpreting the Evidence: The Medieval Castle 5. 9. The Bayeux Tapestry 5.10. Bodiam Castle Those Who Work Interpreting the Evidence: Life on the Manor 5.11. The Village of Cuminor from the Domesday Book5.12. A Manor belonging to Peterborough Abbey (c. 1125)5.13. A Manor in Sussex (Early 14th century)5.14. Freedom for the Serf (1278)5.15. The Lord's Manor House (Mid-thirteenth century) Women's Work5.16. The Office of the Dairymaid from the Book of the Office of Seneschal5.17. The Yield from the Dairy5.18. The Serving Maid5.19. Visual Evidence from the Luttrell Psalter Interpreting the Evidence: Rural Life and Technological Development 5.20. Walter of Henley's Husbandry and the Luttrell Psalter 5.21. Watermills in the Domesday Book and the Luttrell Psalter5.22. Windmills in the Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond and the Luttrell Psalter Chapter 6: The Centralization of Political Control from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century The Monarchies of France, England, and Christian Iberia France6.1.The Election of Hugh Capet as King of France Interpreting the Evidence: Three Views of the Norman Conquest6.2. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1066)6.3. The Bayeux Tapestry 6.4. Gesta Guillelmi by William of Poitiers England and William the Conqueror6.5. Statutes of William the Conqueror6.6. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Iberia 6.7. A Christian Monarch in Iberia: Sancho Abarca, King of Navarre The Ottonian Empire and Germany The Deeds of Otto the Great: The Battle of Lechfeld (955) 6.8. Liutprand of Cremona Interpreting the Evidence: Otto III6.9. The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg 6.10. The Gospel Book of Otto III6.11. The Book of the Golden City of Rome Interpreting the Evidence: Monastic-Feudal Connections6.12. Grant of Land to a Monastery6.13. The Cross of Abbess Matilda of Essen The Investiture Controversy6.14. The Pope's Prerogatives According to Gregory VII6.15. Letter from Henry IV6.16. The Incident at Canossa6.17. Decrees Against Lay Investiture6.18. Agreements of Worms (1122) Eastern Europe, Russia, and Scandinavia Hungary6.19 "Apostolic King": A Letter from Pope Sylvester II to King Stephen of Hungary 6.20. The Laws of King Stephen of Hungary Russia6.21 Olga "the Beautiful": A Tenth-Century Russian Ruler Scandinavia6.22 The Saga of Olaf Tryggvason The Byzantine Empire6.23. Preface to On Ceremonies by Emperor Constantine VII Chapter 7: Monastic Reform, Pilgrimage, and Crusade The Monastic Reform Movement 7.1. Interpreting the Evidence: Foundation Charter of the Abbey of Cluny (910), Ground Plan, and Description by Odilo of Cluny 7.2. Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercian Order7.3. Bernard on Cluny Pilgrimage Pilgrimage Journeys: Jerusalem, Santiago de Compostela, and Canterbury7.4. The Pilgrim Udalrich7.5. The Pilgrim Saewulf7.6. The Pilgrim's Guide to Santiago de Compostela7.7. Interpreting the Evidence: Pilgrimage to Canterbury: Thomas Becket and a Stained-Glass Panel from Canterbury Cathedral The First Crusade "God Wills It": Pope Urban's Summons to the First Crusade7.8. From the Gesta Francorum (Deeds of the Franks)7.9. Fulcher of Chartres7.10. Robert the Monk7.11. Balderic of Dol7.12. A Hebrew Chronicle: the Massacres of Jews7.13. A Woman's Perspective: From the Alexiad by Anna Comnena7.14. Ibn al-Athir: A Muslim View of the Crusade Two Accounts of the Origins of the Templars7.15. William of Tyre7.16. Michael the Syrian The Reconquista7.17. The Poem of the Cid7.18. The Conquest of Lisbon Chapter 8: Romanesque Culture Architecture, Sculpture, and Objects of Devotion8.1. "A White Mantle of Churches": The Five Books of History by Rodulphus Glaber8.2. Interpreting the Evidence: The Vezelay Chronicle and the Church of Sainte 8.3. Interpreting the Evidence: The Western Tympanum at Autun and the "Besetting Demons" 8.4. Interpreting the Evidence: The Reliquary and Miracles of Saint Foy, Virgin Martyr 8.5. The Relics of Saint Cuthbert8.6. Interpreting the Evidence: Suger's Chalice and On the Various Arts by Theophilus 8.7. "O Vanity of Vanities": Bernard of Clairvaux on Religious Art Literature8.8. "Noble Lord, Knight of Gentle Birth": From The Song of Roland8.9. Abraham: A Play by Roswitha of Gandersheim Chapter 9: Religion and Politics in the Twelfth Century Politics in France and England9.1. Power and the Monarchy: Deeds of Louis the Fat by Suger9.2. Henry II and the Angevin Empire: The Instruction of A Prince by Gerald of Wales The Becket Controversy9.3. A Mother's Plea: Letter from Empress Matilda to Thomas Becket9.4. Becket's Martyrdom: From the Vita by Edward Grim9.5. Interpreting the Evidence: A miracle of Saint Thomas of Canterbury and Stained-Glass from Trinity Chapel, Canterbury Cathedral Politics in Germany Frederick I [Barbarossa]9.6. Letter of Frederick I to Pope Eugene III 9.7. Pope Eugene's Reply9.8. Treaty of Constance, 11539.9. The "Stirrup Episode"9.10. The "Besancon Episode" The Crusader Kingdoms and the Third CrusadeThe Crusader Kingdoms9.11. The History of Fulcher of Chartres9.12. The Memoirs of Usmah ibn-Munquidh The Third Crusade The "Horns of Hattin": Overture to the Third Crusade9.13. The Chronicle of Otto of St. Blasien9.14. Ibn Shaddad: The Life of Saladin9.15. A Letter from Pope Clement III Concerning the Third Crusade9.16. The Death of Frederick Barbarossa: From The Chronicle of Otto of St. Blasien Chapter 10: Social and Cultural Revival in the Twelfth Century The Urban World: Cities and Guilds10.1. A Description of Twelfth-Century London by William FitzStephen10.2. Guild Statutes: Spur Makers and Leather Tanners Architecture: Birth of the Gothic Style 10.3. Interpreting the Evidence: De Consecratione by Abbot Suger and the Ambulatory of Saint Denis Secular Literature 10.4. Images of Lancelot, by Chretien de Troyes10.5. Interpreting the Evidence: Marie de France: The Lay of the Nightingale10.6. The Art of Courtly Love by Andreas Capellanus10.7. Songs by Troubadours, Trouveres, and Trobairitz A Medieval Romance: Abelard and Heloise10.8. Historia Calamitatum by Peter Abelard 10.9. Letter to Abelard from Heloise Religious and Philosophical Literature10.10. Sic et Non by Peter Abelard10.11. Averroes: On the Harmony of Religion and Philosophy10.12. Maimonides: Guide for the Perplexed10.13. Interpreting the Evidence: "Cry out therefore, and write thus!": The Visions of Hildegard of Bingen Chapter 11: Political and Economic Developments in the Thirteenth Century France and England11.1. Interpreting the Evidence: A Paragon of Kingly Virtue: Joinville's Chronicles of the Crusades, the Life of Saint Louis and a Manuscript Illumination from Bible Abregee 11.2. Philip IV Calls the First Estates General11.3. "An Execrable Evil": Philip IV and the Templars11.4. Unam Sanctam: Boniface VIII and Philip IV11.5. Magna Carta The Holy Roman Empire11.6. Frederick II and Germany 11.7. Frederick II and Pope Innocent IV The Iberian Peninsula11.8. The Proper Virtues of a King: From the Siete Partidas11.9. Cantigas de Santa Maria by Alfonso X, "The Wise"11.10. The Church and the Jews in Thirteenth-Century Spain The Byzantine Empire11.11. Villehardouin's Chronicle: The Conquest of Constantinople 11.12. Nicholas Mesarites: A Byzantine Lament 11.13. Niketas Choniates: On the Statues Commerce and Trade The Growth of Trade in Northern Europe11.14. Lubeck and Hamburg Seek Mutual Protection (1241)11.15. The Hanseatic League11.16. London and the Hansa Negotiate Italy11.17. Trade in the Mediterranean Sea: Venice11.18. Padua: The State Promotes Commerce The Mongol Threat 11.19. The History of the World-Conqueror by Juvaini Chapter 12: Religious Ferment and Social Change New Directions in Spirituality: Waldensians and Cathars The Waldensians and Cathars12.1. Peter Waldo: From an Anonymous Chronicle (c. 1218)12.2. Walter Map: On the Waldensians (1179)12.3. View of the Cathar Movement by Eckbert, Abbot of Schonau12.4. Pope Gregory IX: Vox in Rama12.5. Albigensians: from the Inquisitor's Guide of Bernard Gui New Religious Orders The Franciscans12.6. The Rule of Saint Francis of Assisi12.7. "Little Flower of the Blessed Francis": The Rule of Saint Clare The Dominicans12.8. Concerning Reading: From the Dominican Constitutions12.9. Interpreting the Evidence: De Modo Orandi: From the Nine Ways of Prayer of Saint Dominic New Communities: The Beguines and the Devotio Moderna12.10. Cartulaire de Beguinage de Sainte-Elizabeth a Gand, Concerning the Beguines 12.11. Mechthild of Magdeburg: The Flowing Light of the Godhead 12.12. The Following of Christ: The Spiritual Diary of Gerard Groote 12.13. Salome Stricken: A Way of Life for Sisters A Female Visionary: Margery Kempe and the Vicar12.14. The Book of Margery Kempe The Fourth Lateran Council: Heretics and the Jews12.15. Raymond of Toulouse and the Cathar Heresy12.16. Interpreting the Evidence: "Blind Synagoga" and the Provisions of the Council Chapter 13: Intellectual and Artistic Development in the High Middle Ages The Medieval University13.1. Early Statutes of the University of the Sorbonne13.2. Rules of the University of Paris (1215)13.3. "Please Send Money": The Balade of a Student at Orleans Philosophy and Science in the Thirteenth Century13.4. The Scholastic Method: From the Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas13.5. The Journey of the Soul into God by Saint Bonaventure13.6. Summa contra gentiles by Saint Thomas Aquinas13.7. Roger Bacon and the Beginning of Modern Experimental Science Literature in the Thirteenth Century13.8. The Romance of the Rose13.9. A Poetic Disputation: The Owl and the Nightingale Gothic Architecture13.10. Interpreting the Evidence: The Cathedral as Symbol13.11. Architecture and Geometry: The Portfolio of Villard de Honnecourt13.12. Interpreting the Evidence: Trinity Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral and Gervase of Canterbury 13.13. Interpreting the Evidence: Rose Window of Notre Dame and Jean de Jandun's Description Chapter 14: The Fourteenth Century: Disorder and Vitality Famine and Plague 14.1. Famine: The Chronicle of Jean de Venette The Black Death: Pestilence from East to West14.2. The Origins of the Plague: Historia Byzantina14.3. Constantinople: From the History of John VI Kantakouzenos14.4. Palestine: Al-Wardi's Essay on the Report of the Pestilence14.5. Florence: From the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio14.6. France: From the Chronicle of Jean de Venette14.7. England: From the Chronicle of Henry Knighton Peasant Revolt14.8. Statute of Laborers14.9. Interpreting the Evidence: Peasant Revolts from the Chronicles of Froissart and an Illumination Depicting Wat Tyler and John Ball The Hundred Years War14.10. The Battle of Crecy (1346): Description from the Chronicles of Froissart The Avignon Papacy: Crisis in the Church14.11. Letter of Petrarch Concerning the Avignon Papacy14.12. A Letter of Catherine of Siena to Pope Gregory XI Fourteenth Century Literature and Art14.13. "Heavenly Love": The Divine Comedy by Dante14.14. "Earthly Love: Sonnets by Petrarch14.15. "Earthly Pleasure": A Tale from the Decameron by Boccaccio14.16. "The Cook's Tale" by Chaucer14.17. A Feminine Voice: The Debate on Romance of the Rose by Christine de Pizan14.18. Interpreting the Evidence: Lamentation: A Fresco of Giotto and Remarks by Boccaccio and Ghiberti

About the Author

Kay Slocum is the Gerhold Professor of Humanities at Capital University, where she is a member of the History Department. She teaches courses in Western Civilization and Medieval History, and has received the Praestantia Award for Excellence in Teaching. Other awards include an ACLS Grant for Recent Recipients of the Ph.D., NEH grants for participation in two Summer Seminars and two Summer Institutes, an NEH Travel to Collections grant, and a Lilly Grant for research. Her publications include Liturgies in Honour of Thomas Becket (University of Toronto Press, 2004), Medieval Civilization (Laurence King, 2005) and many articles concerning liturgy and music in medieval culture. She is an active member of the Medieval Academy of America and the American Musicological Association.

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