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Sound Linkage
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements x Foreword xi About the companion website xii Introduction 1 Test of phonological awareness 3 Programme administration 10 Phonological training activities 10 Phonological linkage activities 12 Section 1: Identification of words as units within sentences 15 Activity 1: Introduction to the concepts of ?beginning?, ?middle? and ?end? 16 Activity 2: Comprehension of the concepts of ?beginning?, ?middle? and ?end? in sentences 16 Activity 3: Transferring the concepts of ?beginning?, ?middle? and ?end? to an aural activity 17 Activity 4: Production of initial, fi nal and medial words in sentences of two to four words 18 Activity 5: Matching counters to words in sentences of two to five words 19 Section 2: Identification and manipulation of syllables 21 Activity 1: Introduction to syllabic rhythm in poems (A) 22 Activity 2: Introduction to syllabic rhythm in poems (B) 23 Activity 3: Syllable blending (two to four syllables) 24 Activity 4: Introduction to syllable segmentation 25 Activity 5: Segmentation of words into syllables (two to four) 26 Activity 6: Syllable counting in words of two to four syllables 27 Activity 7: Syllable deletion 28 Section 3: Identification and supply of rhyming words 29 Activity 1: Introduction to rhyme 30 Activity 2: Discrimination of pairs of rhyming and non-rhyming words 31 Activity 3: Supplying rhymes (A) 31 Activity 4: Supplying rhymes (B) 32 Activity 5: Supplying rhymes (C) 33 Activity 6: Rhyme supply (riddles) 35 Activity 7: Discrimination of one of three words that rhymes with a target word 36 Section 4: Identification and discrimination of phonemes 37 Activity 1: Introduction to ?saying a word slowly? 38 Activity 2: Picture sound association (initial sounds of words) 38 Activity 3: Word pair discrimination 39 Activity 4: Identification of initial sounds in words 40 Activity 5: Identification of final sounds in words 42 Activity 6: Identification of medial sounds in words 44 Activity 7: Discrimination of two of three words with the same initial sound 46 Activity 8: Introduction to the concept of ?same end? sound 47 Activity 9: Discrimination of two of three words with the same final sound 48 Activity 10: Discrimination of two of three words with the same medial sound 48 Activity 11: Discrimination of word pairs with the same initial sound 49 Activity 12: Discrimination of word pairs with the same final sound 50 Activity 13: Discrimination of word pairs with the same medial sound 51 Activity 14: Discrimination of one of three words with the same initial sound as a target word 51 Activity 15: Discrimination of one of four words with a different initial sound 52 Activity 16: Discrimination of one of three words with the same final sound as a target word 54 Activity 17: Discrimination of one of four words with a different final sound 55 Section 5: Phoneme blending 57 Activity 1: Production of words from two to four sounds 58 Activity 2: Production of words from two sounds 59 Activity 3: Production of words from three sounds 59 Activity 4: Production of words from four sounds 60 Activity 5: Production of words from fi ve sounds 61 Activity 6: Sound linkage: Blending of two sounds 62 Activity 7: Sound linkage: Blending of three sounds 63 Activity 8: Sound linkage: Blending of four sounds (initial blends) 64 Activity 9: Sound linkage: Blending of four sounds (final blends) 66 Section 6: Phoneme segmentation 69 Activity 1: Production of the initial sound of target words 70 Activity 2: Production of the final sound of target words 70 Activity 3: Production of the medial sound of target words 71 Activity 4: Introduction to the concept of breaking up a word into sounds 72 Activity 5: Introduction to segmenting a word while pushing counters into boxes 73 Activity 6: Phoneme counting with two to four counters (A) 74 Activity 7: Phoneme counting with two to four counters (B) 75 Activity 8: Segmenting words into sounds 75 Activity 9: Sound linkage: Discrimination of two of three words with the same initial ?sound? 76 Activity 10: Sound linkage: Discrimination of two of three words with the same final ?sound? 77 Activity 11: Sound linkage: Discrimination of two of three words with the same medial ?sound? 79 Section 7: Phoneme deletion 81 Activity 1: Introduction to the concepts of ?missing from? and ?without? 82 Activity 2: Introduction to the concepts of ?taken away? and ?left? in relation to sounds in words 83 Activity 3: Specification of the initial sound deleted from a word 85 Activity 4: Specification of the final sound deleted from a word 85 Activity 5: Specification of a medial sound that has been deleted from a word 86 Activity 6: Deletion of the initial sound of a word to produce another word (A) 87 Activity 7: Deletion of the initial sound of a word to produce another word (B) 88 Activity 8: Deletion of the fi nal sound of a word to produce another word 89 Activity 9: Deletion of the medial sound of a word to produce another word 89 Activity 10: Sound linkage: Discrimination of a word produced by deleting the initial sound from a stimulus word 90 Activity 11: Sound linkage: Discrimination of a word produced by deleting the final sound from a stimulus word 92 Section 8: Phoneme substitution 95 Activity 1: Introduction to the concept of changing the beginning item of a sequence 96 Activity 2: Revision of the concept of ?first sound in a word? 96 Activity 3: Changing the initial sound of a word 97 Activity 4: Phoneme substitution (initial sound) 98 Activity 5: Phoneme substitution (final sound) 98 Activity 6: Phoneme substitution (medial sound) 99 Activity 7: Sound linkage: Substitution of initial letters/phonemes in words 100 Activity 8: Sound linkage: Substitution of final letters/phonemes in words 102 Activity 9: Sound linkage: Substitution of medial letters/phonemes in words 103 Section 9: Phoneme transposition 105 Activity 1: Defining the concept of backwards (using pictures) 106 Activity 2: Defining the concept of backwards (in relation to words) 106 Activity 3: Defining the concept of backwards (in relation to sounds in words) 107 Activity 4: Reversing the sequence of sounds in a word 108 Activity 5: Introduction to spoonerisms 109 Activity 6: Spoonerisms 110 Activity 7: Sound linkage: Reversing the sequence of sounds in a word 111 Activity 8: Sound linkage: Spoonerisms 112 Section 10: Phonological linkage activities 115 Instructions 116 Establishing a link between sounds and the written form of words 116 Using letters as clues in text reading 117 Multisyllabic words and words with suffixes and prefixes 118 Playing with words 118 Sound Linkage: Theoretical background to the programme 120 Phonological awareness and learning to read 120 The Hatcher, Hulme and Ellis study 121 Evidence from subsequent studies for the effectiveness of ?reading with phonology? programmes 126 Using sound linkage as one component of an integrated approach to teaching reading 128 Grading children?s early reading books 132 Summary 132 Test development and standardisation 133 Appendix 1: Additional activities 142 Section 2: Identification and manipulation of syllables 142 Section 3: Identification and supply of rhyming words 142 Section 4: Identification and discrimination of phonemes 143 Section 5: Phoneme blending 144 Section 6: Phoneme segmentation 145 Section 7: Phoneme deletion 146 Section 8: Phoneme substitution 146 Section 9: Phoneme transposition 146 Appendix 2: Table of percentages (observed score / possible score) x 100 148 Appendix 3: Grading children?s early reading books 149 Sound linkage training programme: Record Sheets 156 Record Sheet A: Test of phonological awareness 156 Record Sheet B: Identification of words as units within sentences 158 Record Sheet C: Identification and manipulation of syllables 160 Record Sheet D: Identification and supply of rhyming words 162 Record Sheet E: Identification and discrimination of phonemes 164 Record Sheet F: Phoneme blending 171 Record Sheet G: Phoneme segmentation 174 Record Sheet H: Phoneme deletion 177 Record Sheet I: Phoneme substitution 180 Record Sheet J: Phoneme transposition 183 References and Bibliography 185

About the Author

Peter J. Hatcher was, until his retirement, SeniorLecturer in Psychology at the University of York. He also worked asa Senior Educational Psychologist with the Cumbria EducationAuthority. His work in the area of understanding and helpingchildren with reading difficulties master the skills of reading,with Charles Hulme and Andrew Ellis, culminated in theirgroundbreaking research (1994) that supported the Sound LinkageHypothesis. Prior to working as an Educational Psychologist, hetaught primary, secondary and tertiary-age students in special andmainstream settings in Australia, the Bahamas, Sierra Leone and theUK. Fiona J. Duff is a Research Associate at the Universityof Oxford. She was previously a research fellow at the Universityof York, where she also completed her PhD. During her studies, shewas awarded the British Psychological Society Postgraduate Awardand was seconded to the Parliamentary Office of Science andTechnology, where she authored a briefing note for parliamentarianson teaching children to read. Charles Hulme is Professor of Psychology at UniversityCollege London. He is a former Editor-in-Chief of the journalScientific Studies of Reading and is currently a SeniorEditor of the Association of Psychological Science s flagshipjournal, Psychological Science. His publications includefive authored and four edited books, over 190 journal articles, aswell as several psychometric tests, including the UnitedKingdom s new standard test of reading comprehension, theYork Assessment of Reading for Comprehension.

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