Abbreviations Acknowledgments Introduction Universalism and Governance Julian the Emperor and Gregory the Theologian Gregory and the Bishops Julian and Gregory in Context Part I 1. Nazianzus and the Eastern Empire, 330--361 Nazianzus and Gregory: The Personal and the Local Constantinople: Emperor, Cosmopolis, and Cosmos Constantius's Triumph: Unity and Harmony, 358--360 Reversal: Constantius and Julian Augustus, 360--361 2. Julian, from Caesar to Augustus: Paris to Constantinople, 355--362 Toward Constantinople: From Caesar to Augustus, 360--361 Julian's Concepts of Leadership: Philosopher and King 3. Philosopher, Leader, Priest: Julian in Constantinople, Spring 362 The Context of Julian's Concepts of the True Philosophical Life A Philosopher as Leader, in Julian's Own Words: Against the Cynic Heraclius A Universal Divinity for a Universal Empire; or, How to Interpret Myth: Hymn to the Mother of the Gods How to Achieve True Philosophy: Against the Uneducated Cynics The Law Regarding Teachers Part II 4. On the True Philosophical Life and Ideal Christian Leadership: Gregory's Inaugural Address, Oration 2 A High-Wire Act: The True Philosophical Life as the Model of Priesthood in Late Antiquity The Codes of Aptitude 5. The Most Potent Pharmakon: Gregory the Elder and Nazianzus The Other High-Wire Act: Fathers and Sons The Royal Road: Gregory the Elder's Opponents at Nazianzus 6. Armed like a Hoplite--Gregory the Political Philosopher at War: Eunomius, Photinus, and Julian Oikeiosis pros Theon as Political Philosophy The Enemy on the Inside: Photinus and Eunomius What Do Words Mean? Oikeiosis pros Theon: Oration 2 against Eunomius Part III 7. A Health-Giving Star Shining on the East: Julian in Antioch, July 362 to March 363 The Emperor as Priest Julian's Divine Mandate The Platonic Philosopher-King: The Misopogon and Julian's Universal Vision 8. The Making of the Apostate: Gregory's Oration 4 against Julian The Pillar of Infamy: An Inverted Furstenspiegel Imperial Decrees and Divine Enactments: Julian and Constantius 9. A Bloodless Sacrifice of Words to the Word: Logoi for the Logos Myth and Allegory Logoi: The Theological Implications Apostasis versus Theosis; or, True Oikeiosis pros Theon Oration 6, On Peace: Unity and Concord 10. Gregory's Second Strike, Oration 5 The Pagan Context Gregory's Second Strike against the Pagans Procopius versus Valens Conclusion: Visions of Rome Governing the Oikoumene Authority and Kinship of the Elites Competing Universalisms Notes Bibliography Index
Susanna Elm is Professor of History and Classics at the University of California, Berkeley. She is the author of Virgins of God: The Making of Asceticism in Late Antiquity.
"A learned study of how the writings of two religious rivals ... were products of the same cultural koine, Hellenism... Recommended." -- K. W. Harl, Tulane University Choice "The refined corrective [Elms] brings to the dominant portrayals of her two protagonists is itself noteworthy, but her book does much more." Bryn Mawr Classical Review (BMCR)