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Solutions for Soil and Structural Systems Using Excel and VBA Programs [With CDROM]
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Table of Contents

About the Author xxi Preface xxiii Acknowledgments xxv PART ONE COMPUTER SOFTWARE 1 1 Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet 3 1.1 History of Spreadsheet Development 3 1.2 Excel 2010 4 1.3 Transmitting Cell Values Not Formulas 5 1.4 Accuracy 5 1.5 Saving 6 1.6 Implementation of Excel Features 6 2 Microsoft VBA Programming Language 13 2.1 History of the BASIC Computer Language 13 2.2 Justification for Using Excel with VBA Macros 15 2.3 Difference between aWorkbook and a VBA Macro 16 2.4 VBA Macro Nomenclature 16 2.5 Generating a Procedure 17 2.6 Security Level Required to Open VBA Macros 19 2.7 VBA Code Statements that Differ from Previous BASIC Versions 19 2.8 Implementation of VBA Macro Programming 20 2.9 Inputting Data to a VBA Procedure 26 2.10 Output Data from a VBA Procedure 30 2.11 Running a Macro 32 2.12 Code Debugging 33 2.13 Charting in a Worksheet 34 2.14 Line Plots in a Worksheet 34 2.15 Macro Sub Program Showing Output toWorksheet 35 2.16 Computer Hardware/Software Requirements 36 PART TWO STRUCTURES 41 3 Finite Element Method ? The Theory 43 3.1 Theory 43 3.2 Developing the Element Stiffness Matrix 44 3.3 Creating the Global Stiffness Matrix by Assembling Element Stiffnesses 47 3.4 Solving Simultaneous Equations for Displacements 47 3.5 Element Displacements and Forces 48 3.6 Flowchart of Steps 49 4 Finite Element Analysis VBA Program PFrame 51 4.1 Program PFrame ? Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of Beam?Bar Structural Systems 51 4.2 Creating an Input Data Worksheet 52 4.3 Input Data 52 4.4 Joint Numbering and Dimensions 56 4.5 Load Application 58 4.6 Imposed Joint Displacements 59 4.7 Unstable or Improperly Supported Configurations 60 4.8 Running Program PFrame 60 4.9 Output Data 62 4.10 Alternate Solution Approach to Macro Program PFrame 63 4.11 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet & VBA Macro Program Construction 63 5 Beams 65 5.1 Beam Member Types 65 5.2 Bar Members as Pinned-End Beams 65 5.3 Moment of Inertia Conversion for Different Member Axis Orientation 67 5.4 Load Application 69 6 Frames 71 6.1 Analysis of Frames 71 6.2 Rigid Joints 71 6.3 Joint Numbering 71 6.4 Pinned-End Beam 73 6.5 Supports 74 6.6 Varying EI of Members Comprising a Frame 75 6.7 Stability ? The P?Delta Effect 76 6.8 Load Case Combinations of Load Groups 76 6.9 Interior Member Forces 77 6.10 Examples 77 7 Trusses 81 7.1 Theory for Bar Members 81 7.2 Analysis of Bar Assemblage 81 7.3 Load Application 82 7.4 Initial Member Length Changes 82 7.5 Support Displacements 82 8 Reinforced Concrete 83 8.1 Concrete and Reinforcing Steel Properties 83 8.2 Design Capacity and Reinforcing Requirements 84 8.3 Strength Properties for a Soil?Structure Interaction Analyses 89 8.4 Cracked-Section Concrete Properties 90 8.5 Excel Workbooks 91 8.6 Notation 92 PART THREE SOILS 95 9 Soil Classification 97 9.1 Field Geotechnical Processes 97 9.2 Soil Description 100 9.3 Field and Laboratory Tests for Soil Identification 103 9.4 Soil Classification Systems 106 9.5 Excel Workbooks and VBA Programs 108 9.6 Soil Mechanics Symbol Nomenclature 109 10 Soil Strength Properties 115 10.1 Discrete and Elastic Finite Element Models 115 10.2 General Elasticity Equations Relating Stress and Strain 115 10.3 Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson?s Ratio 118 10.4 Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction 135 10.5 Mathematical Descriptions of Curves Using Program Curve Fit 138 11 Stresses in an Elastic Half-Space 141 11.1 Closed-Form Elasticity Solutions 141 11.2 Lateral Stresses against a Wall Restrained from Movement due to Point, Line, and Strip Loading 141 11.3 Boussinesq Equation 141 11.4 Westergaard Equation 142 11.5 Mindlin Equation 142 11.6 Chart Solutions 142 11.7 Excel Workbook ? Lat&VertStress 143 11.8 VBA Program HSpace 143 11.9 Significant Programming Aspects 144 11.10 VBA Program HSpace ? Program Documentation 144 12 Lateral Soil Pressures and Retaining Walls 149 12.1 Lateral Earth Pressure ? Sloped Backfill Acting on Inclined Retaining Wall 149 12.2 Slope Stability 150 12.3 Stability of a Vertical Cut 150 12.4 Retaining Wall Movements 151 12.5 Retaining Walls ? Factor of Safety 151 13 Shallow and Deep Foundation Vertical Bearing Capacity 153 13.1 Shallow Foundations 153 13.2 Vertical Bearing Stress Capacity 153 13.3 Soil Pressure Distribution 154 13.4 Settlement-Based Bearing Capacity 155 13.5 Excel Workbooks 156 13.6 Deep Foundations 156 13.7 Capacities Based on Displacement Limits 157 13.8 Capacities Based on Stress Limits 158 13.9 Limitations on Capacities 160 13.10 Load Testing 161 13.11 Pier Settlement 161 13.12 Excel Workbook 161 13.13 Combined Foundations ? Shallow and Deep 161 14 Slope Stability 165 14.1 Workbook Program Slope ? Slope Stability by Bishop?s Modified Method of Slices 165 14.2 Workbook Program STABR ? Slope Stability by Bishop?s Modified Method of Slices 166 14.3 Workbook Program Slope8R ? Slope Stability by Spencer?s Procedure for Non-circular Slip Surfaces 167 15 Seepage Flow through Porous Media 169 15.1 Program Flownet for Analysis of Seepage Flow through Porous Media 169 15.2 Program Input ? from Data file 170 15.3 Program Output ? to Data File 171 15.4 Input Data Description 172 15.5 Output Data Description 172 15.6 Example 172 15.7 Significant Aspects of Excel Workbook and VBA Macro Program Construction 174 PART FOUR SOIL?STRUCTURE INTERACTION 177 16 Beam-on-Elastic Foundation 179 16.1 Theory?Classical Differential Equation Solution 179 16.2 Beam?Bar Finite Element Model 180 16.3 Soil Strength ? Coefficient of Vertical Subgrade Reaction 182 16.4 Structural Stiffness 183 16.5 Soil?Structure Interaction 183 16.6 Unbalanced Fixed-End Moment from Triangular Load Distribution 184 16.7 Pressure Distribution 184 16.8 Solution Exclusively in Excel Worksheet without VBA 185 16.9 Examples 187 17 Footings andMat Foundations 191 17.1 Mat Foundations 191 17.2 Slab Section Stiffness and Moment Capacity 192 17.3 Soil?Structure Interaction 192 17.4 Practical Considerations Regarding Slab Reinforcement 193 17.5 Case Study ? House Slab Foundations in Tucson, Arizona 197 17.6 Example 17.1 House Slab 197 18 Laterally Loaded Piles 201 18.1 Theory ? Classical Differential Equation Solution 201 18.2 Conventional Analysis 202 18.3 Beam?Bar Finite Element Solution 202 18.4 Structural Stiffness 207 18.5 Soil Strength 209 18.6 Soil?Structure Interaction 213 18.7 Soil Pressures on Each Side of Pier 215 18.8 Limitations of a Beam?Bar Analysis 219 18.9 Design Procedure 219 18.10 Solution Exclusively in Excel Worksheet without VBA 221 18.11 Point of Fixity 222 18.12 Pile Groups 222 18.13 Conclusions 222 18.14 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet and VBA Macro 223 18.15 Examples 223 19 Cantilevered and Anchored Sheet Piles 229 19.1 Cantilevered Sheet Piles 229 19.2 Beam?Bar Finite Element Model for Cantilevered Piles 229 19.3 Anchored Sheet Piles 229 19.4 Beam?Bar Finite Element Model for Anchored Sheet Piles 230 19.5 Soil Strength Representation 230 19.6 Examples 231 20 Buried Arch Culverts (Tunnels) 233 20.1 Theory: Classical Elasticity Formulation ? Burns and Richard Solution 233 20.2 Soil?Structure Interaction 234 20.3 Beam?Bar Finite Element Frame Model 235 20.4 Vertical Loads 237 20.5 Distributing and Attenuating Vertical Live Loads 238 20.6 Horizontal Ko Pressure Load 240 20.7 Load Application 240 20.8 General Elasticity FEA Programs 241 20.9 SSI 242 20.10 Cracked-Section Considerations 243 20.11 Examples 244 21 The Arch Form 247 21.1 History of Arches and Vaults 247 21.2 Arch-Shaped Configurations 247 21.3 Force Determination for Various Shaped Arches 249 21.4 Arch Engineering Considerations 250 21.5 Structural and Hydraulic Efficiency 252 21.6 Soil?Structure Interaction 253 21.7 Flexible versus Rigid Structures 254 21.8 Failure Patterns and Deflections 255 21.9 Load Tests 256 21.10 Design Comments 256 21.11 Buckling of Arches 260 21.12 Seismic Design Considerations 261 PART FIVE ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS 263 22 Domes 265 22.1 Geometry 265 22.2 Membrane Stresses 265 22.3 Stress Computations Using Worksheet Dome 266 23 Critical Path Method 269 23.1 Project Scheduling 269 23.2 VBA Versions 270 24 Financial Analysis 271 24.1 Equations Governing Financial Operations 271 24.2 Excel Worksheets for Financial Calculator and Formulas 272 24.3 Significant Aspects of Excel Worksheet and Macro Functions 272 25 Conversion of Units of Measurement 275 25.1 Unit Systems 275 25.2 Defined Units 276 25.3 Labeling Conventions 276 25.4 Workbook UnitCnvrsn 277 25.5 Excel Conversions 278 25.6 Example 278 Related Workbook on DVD 278 Index 279

About the Author

Robert L. Sogge has a background which includes training, teaching, research and practical consulting in the area of soil-structure interaction. He achieved his PhD in Civil Engineering at the University of Arizona, USA, and practices in that state and California. He has developed many of these computer programs in the pursuit of his work as a consultant.

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