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Soil and Water Contamination

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Table of Contents

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION PART I AN INTRODUCTION TO SOIL AND WATER CONTAMINATION 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1 Historical perspective 1.2 Environmental pollution 1.3 Environmental pollutants 1.3.1 Classification of pollutants 1.3.2 Background concentrations 1.3.3 Anthropogenic sources 1.4 Ecological impacts 1.5 Spatial and temporal variability and the concept of scale 1.6 Outline and rationale of this book Exercises 2 BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Units of analysis 2.3 Activity 2.4 Background thermodynamics 2.5 Phases and phase transitions 2.5.1 Phases 2.5.2 Thermodynamic considerations on phase transitions 2.5.3 Partition coefficient 2.5.4 Partitioning between dissolved phase and adsorbed phase 2.5.5 Fugacity 2.6 Chemical equilibrium and kinetics 2.6.1 Equilibrium 2.6.2 Kinetics 2.7 Dissolution-precipitation reactions 2.8 Complexation 2.9 Acid-base reactions 2.9.1 Introduction 2.9.2 Acids 2.9.3 Bases 2.9.4 Buffering 2.10 Redox reactions VI Soil and Water Contamination 2.10.1 Introduction 2.10.2 Oxidation state 2.10.3 Redox potential 2.10.4 Redox reactions and pe 2.10.5 pH-Eh diagrams 2.11 Further reading on basic chemistry Exercises 3 ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARTMENTS 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Soil 3.2.1 Definition of soil 3.2.2 Sources of soil pollution 3.2.3 Soil water 3.2.4 Soil erosion 3.2.5 Physico-chemical conditions in soil 3.3 Groundwater 3.3.1 Definition of groundwater 3.3.2 Sources of groundwater pollution 3.3.3 Physico-chemical conditions in groundwater 3.4 Surface water 3.4.1 Definition of surface water 3.4.2 Bed sediments 3.4.3 Sources of surface water pollution 3.4.4 Physico-chemical conditions in surface water 3.5 Further reading on soils, groundwater, and surface water Exercises PART II SOURCES, ROLE, AND BEHAVIOUR OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER 4 SOLID PHASE CONSTITUENTS 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Inorganic components 4.2.1 Composition and formation 4.2.2 Aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides 4.2.3 Clay minerals 4.2.4 Asbestos 4.2.5 Nanomaterials 4.3 Organic components 4.3.1 Composition and formation 4.3.2 Interaction with the aqueous phase 4.3.3 Interaction with mineral surfaces 4.3.4 Decomposition of organic matter 4.4 Sorption by soils and sediments Exercises 5 MAJOR DISSOLVED PHASE CONSTITUENTS 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Sodium 5.3 Potassium 5.4 Calcium 5.5 Magnesium 5.6 Iron 5.7 Manganese 5.8 Aluminium 5.9 Chloride 5.10 Inorganic carbon 5.11 Sulphate and sulphide Exercises 6 NUTRIENTS 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Nitrogen 6.2.1 Environmental role and occurrence of nitrogen 6.2.2 Nitrogen cycle 6.2.3 External sources and sinks 6.3 Phosphorus 6.3.1 Environmental role and occurrence of phosphorus 6.3.2 Phosphorus cycle 6.3.3 External sources and sinks Exercises 7 HEAVY METALS 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Zinc 7.3 Copper 7.4 Lead 7.5 Cadmium 7.6 Nickel 7.7 Chromium 7.8 Mercury 7.9 Arsenic 7.10 Selenium Exercises 8 RADIONUCLIDES 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Natural radionuclides 8.2.1 Terrestrial radionuclides 8.2.2 Cosmogenic radionuclides 8.3 Man-made radionuclides 8.3.1 Production and releases 8.3.2 Accidental releases 8.3.3 Nuclear weapons 8.3.4 Environmental behaviour and effects of selected man-made radionuclides Exercises 9 ORGANIC POLLUTANTS 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Petroleum and derivatives 9.3 Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 9.4 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 9.5 Chlorinated hydrocarbons 9.5.1 Aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons 9.5.2 Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) 9.5.3 Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) 9.5.4 Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) 9.5.5 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 9.6 Dioxins 9.7 Emerging substances of concern 9.7.1 Current-use pesticides 9.7.2 Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products 9.7.3 Endocrine-Modulating Chemicals 9.7.4 Microplastics Exercises PART III TRANSPORT PROCESSES OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER 10 SYSTEMS AND MODELS 10.1 A systems approach 10.2 The role of mathematical models 10.3 Classification of mathematical models Exercises 11 SUBSTANCE TRANSPORT 11.1 Mass balance 11.2 Advection 11.2.1 Advection equation 11.2.2 Load calculation and mixing 11.3 Diffusion and dispersion 11.3.1 Molecular diffusion 11.3.2 Turbulent diffusion and mechanical dispersion 11.3.3 Longitudinal dispersion 11.3.4 Transverse dispersion 11.3.5 Numerical dispersion 11.4 Multi-fluid flow Exercises 12 SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Transport equation 12.3 Bottom shear stress 12.4 Sediment deposition 12.5 Sediment erosion 12.6 Long-term soil erosion and deposition Exercises 13 CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Sorption equilibrium and kinetics 13.3 Biological production and degradation Exercises 14 GAS EXCHANGE 14.1 Henry's law 14.2 Thin film model 14.3 Reaeration 14.4 Gas exchange controlled on the water side 14.5 Gas exchange controlled on the air side 14.6 Gas exchange in the subsurface environment Exercises 15 MODEL CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Model performance criteria 15.3 Considerations affecting model choice Exercises PART IV PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCES IN SOIL AND WATER 16 PATTERNS IN THE SOIL AND IN THE VADOSE ZONE 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Natural variation in background concentrations 16.3 Variation due to clay and organic matter content 16.4 Lateral variation 16.4.1 Introduction 16.4.2 Effects of fertiliser and pesticide application 16.4.3 Effects of atmospheric deposition 16.4.4 Effects of soil erosion and deposition 16.5 Vertical variation 16.5.1 Introduction 16.5.2 Effects of leaching 16.5.3 Effects of contamination history 16.6 Further reading on contaminants in soil Exercises 17 PATTERNS IN GROUNDWATER 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Hydrological systems analysis 17.3 Hydrochemical systems analysis 17.4 Effects of lateral variation in contaminant inputs 17.5 Effects of temporal variation in contaminant inputs 17.6 Effects of dispersion 17.7 Effects of retardation 17.8 Effects of acid-base reactions 17.9 Effects of redox reactions 17.10 Further reading on contaminants in groundwater Exercises 18 PATTERNS IN SURFACE WATER 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Spatial variation in river water composition 18.2.1 Effects of diffuse sources 18.2.2 Effects of point sources 3 18.3 Temporal variation in river water composition 18.3.1 Short-term dynamics 18.3.2 Hysteresis response of dissolved concentrations to changes in discharge 18.3.3 Release of old water 18.3.4 Sediment dynamics 18.3.5 Concentration rating curves 18.3.6 Significance of hydrological events for substance transport 18.3.7 Seasonal dynamics of nutrient concentrations 18.3.8 Long-term dynamics 18.4 Variation in lake water composition 18.4.1 Role of lakes in catchment sediment and nutrient budgets 18.4.2 Lateral variation 18.4.3 Vertical variation during summer stratification 18.4.4 Temporal variation 18.5 Further reading on contaminants in surface water Exercises REFERENCES APPENDIX I THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS APPENDIX 2 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES INDEX

About the Author

Marcel van der Perk is Assistant Professor of Physical Geography at Utrecht University, where he specialises in soil and water quality issues and spatio-temporal environmental modelling. He teaches courses on soil and water pollution and geographical information systems. His research focuses on measurement, analysis, and modelling of transport and fate of dissolved and sediment-associated contaminants (nutrients, heavy metals, and radionuclides) in soil and water from field to river basin scales.


!the clear structure makes searching child's play!. I did three random searches and in no time located what I was looking for! I can think of no subject that the author has failed to address!Everywhere, the texts are compact, and you get the feeling that you are dealing with the real core of the subject. Harry Boukes, Consultant Hydrologist, translated from Stromingen 13 (2007) number 2 I liked the approach taken in this integrate soil and water contamination and not treat them as independant processes. It makes sense form a true environmental perspective that chemistry and soil science and hydrology are considered together...I can recommend this book to advanced undergraduates and postgraduates in the earth and environmental sciences...a useful refreshener to professionals. Prof. John G. Farmer, Executive Editor, Science of the Total Environment 373 (2007) 603

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