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Society: The Basics

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Table of Contents

IN THIS SECTION: 1. BRIEF 2. COMPREHENSIVE BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method Chapter 2: Culture Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society Chapter 7: Deviance Chapter 8: Social Stratification Chapter 9: Global Stratification Chapter 10: Gender Stratification Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity Chapter 12: Economics and Politics Chapter 13: Family and Religion Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method The Sociological Perspective Seeing the General in the Particular Seeing the Strange in the Familiar Seeing Society in Our Everyday Lives Seeing Sociologically: Marginality and Crisis The Importance of a Global Perspective Applying the Sociological Perspective Sociology and Public Policy Sociology and Personal Growth Careers: The "Sociology Advantage" The Origins of Sociology Social Change and Sociology Science and Sociology Sociological Theory Seeing Sociology in the News "In Poor Economy, Laid-off Workers Flocking to Community Colleges" The Structural-Functional Approach The Social-Conflict Approach Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach The Race-Conflict Approach The Symbolic-Interaction Approach Three Ways to Do Sociology Positivist Sociology Interpretive Sociology Critical Sociology Research Orientations and Theory Gender and Research Research Ethics Research Methods Testing a Hypothesis: The Experiment Asking Questions: Survey Research In the Field: Participant Observation Using Available Data: Existing Sources Putting It All Together: Ten Steps in Sociological Research Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 2: Culture What Is Culture? Culture and Human Intelligence How Many Cultures? The Elements of Culture Symbols Language Values and Beliefs Norms Ideal and Real Culture Technology and Culture Hunting and Gathering Horticulture and Pastoralism Agriculture Industry Postindustrial Information Technology Cultural Diversity High Culture and Popular Culture Subculture Multiculturalism Counterculture Cultural Change Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Seeing Sociology in the News "US Troops Train for Both Combat and Conversation" A Global Culture? Theoretical Analysis of Culture The Functions of Culture: Structural-Functional Analysis Inequality and Culture: Social-Conflict Analysis Evolution and Culture: Sociobiology Culture and Human Freedom Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity Human Development: Nature and Nurture Social Isolation Understanding Socialization Sigmund Freuds's Elements of Personality Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development Lawrence Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development Carol Gilligan's Theory of Gender and Moral Development George Herbert Mead's Theory of the Social Self Erik H. Erikson's Eight Stages of Development Agents of Socialization The Family The School The Peer Group The Mass Media Seeing Sociology in the News "The Children of Cyberspace: Old Fogies by Their Twenties" Socialization and the Life Course Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old Age Death and Dying The Life Course: Patterns and Variations Resocialization: Total Institutions Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 4: Social Interaction in Everyday Life Social Structure: A Guide to Everyday Living Status Ascribed and Achieved Status Master Status Role Role Conflict and Role Strain Role Exit The Social Construction of Reality Seeing Sociology in the News "For Teenagers, Hello Means 'How about a Hug?'" "Street Smarts" The Thomas Theorem Ethnomethodology Reality Building: Class and Culture Dramaturgical Analysis: The "Presentation of Self" Performances Nonverbal Communication Gender Performances Idealization Embarrassment and Tact Interaction in Everyday Life: Three Applications Emotions: The Social Construction of Feeling Language: The Social Construction of Gender Reality Play: The Social Construction of Humor Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations Social Groups Primary and Secondary Groups Group Leadership Group Conformity Reference Groups In-Groups and Out-Groups Group Size Social Diversity: Race, Class, and Gender Networks Formal Organizations Types of Organizations Origins of Formal Organizations Characteristics of Bureaucracy Organizational Environment The Informal Side of Bureaucracy Problems of Bureaucracy Seeing Sociology in the News "Professor Suspended after Joke about Killing Students on Facebook" The Evolution of Formal Organizations Scientific Management The First Challenge: Race and Gender The Second Challenge: The Japanese Work Organization The Third Challenge: The Changing Nature of Work The "McDonaldization" of Society The Future of Organizations: Opposing Trends Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 6: Sexuality and Society Understanding Sexuality Sex: A Biological Issue Sex and the Body Sex: A Cultural Issue The Incest Taboo Sexual Attitudes in the United States The Sexual Revolution The Sexual Counterrevolution Premarital Sex Sex Between Adults Extramarital Sex Sex over the Life Course Sexual Orientation What Gives Us a Sexual Orientation? How Many Gay People Are There? The Gay Rights Movement Seeing Sociology in the News "Making a Prom Date Changes His Fate" Sexual Issues and Controversies Teen Pregnancy Pornography Prostitution Sexual Violence: Rape and Date Rape Theoretical Analysis of Sexuality Structural-Functional Analysis Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Sample Test Questions Chapter 7: Deviance What is Deviance? Social Control The Biological Context Personality Factors The Social Foundation of Deviance The Functions of Deviance: Structural-Functional Analysis Durkheim's Basic Insight Merton's Strain Theory Deviant Subcultures Labeling Deviance: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Seeing Sociology in the News "Ex-Employees Turn to Cyber Crime after Layoffs" Labeling Theory The Medicalization of Deviance Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Hirschi's Control Theory Deviance and Inequality: Social-Conflict Analysis Deviance and Power Deviance and Capitalism White-Collar Crime Organized Crime Deviance, Race, and Gender Hate Crimes The Feminist Perspective: Deviance and Gender Crime Types of Crime Criminal Statistics The Street Criminal: A Profile Crime in Global Perspective The U.S. Criminal Justice System Due Process Police Courts Punishment The Death Penalty Community-Based Corrections Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 8: Social Stratification What is Social Stratification? Caste and Class Systems The Caste System The Class System Caste and Class: The United Kingdom Classless Societies? The Former Soviet Union China: Emerging Social Classes Ideology: The Power Behind Stratification The Functions of Social Stratification The Davis-Moore Thesis Stratification and Conflict Karl Marx: Class Conflict Why No Marxist Revolution? Max Weber: Class, Status, and Power Stratification and Interaction Stratification and Technology: A Global Perspective Hunting and Gathering Societies Horticultural, Pastoral, and Agrarian Societies Industrial Societies The Kuznets Curve Inequality in the United States Income, Wealth, and Power Occupational Prestige Schooling Ancestry, Race, and Gender Social Classes in the United States The Upper Class The Middle Class The Working Class The Lower Class The Difference Class Makes Health Values and Attitudes Politics Family and Gender Social Mobility Myth versus Reality Mobility by Income Level Mobility: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Mobility and Marriage The American Dream: Still a Reality? Seeing Sociology in the News "Waking Up from American Dreams" The Global Economy and U.S. Class Structure Poverty in the United States The Extent of Poverty Who Are the Poor? Explaining Poverty The Working Poor Homelessness Class, Welfare, Politics, and Values Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 9: Global Stratification Global Stratification: An Overview A World about Terminology High-Income Countries Middle-Income Countries Low-Income Countries Global Wealth and Poverty The Severity of Poverty The Extent of Poverty Poverty and Children Seeing Sociology in the News "The Child Catchers" Poverty and Women Slavery Explanations of Global Poverty Global Stratification: Theoretical Analysis Modernization Theory Dependency Theory Global Stratification: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 10: Gender Stratification Gender and Inequality Male-Female Differences Gender in Global Perspective Patriarchy and Sexism Gender and Socialization Gender and the Family Gender and the Peer Group Gender and Schooling Gender and the Mass Media Gender and Social Stratification Working Women and Men Seeing Sociology in the News "Women on Board: Breaking the 'Bamboo Ceiling'" Gender, Income, and Wealth Housework: Women's "Second Shift" Gender and Education Gender and Politics Gender and the Military Are Women a Minority? Minority Women: Intersection Theory Violence against Women Violence against Men Sexual Harassment Pornography Theoretical Analysis of Gender Structural-Functional Analysis Social-Conflict Analysis Feminism Basic Feminist Ideas Types of Feminism Opposition to Feminism Gender: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity Race Ethnicity Minorities Prejudice and Stereotypes Measuring Prejudice: The Social Distance Scale Racism Theories of Prejudice Discrimination Seeing Sociology in the News "In Job Hunt, College Degree Can't Close Racial Gap" Institutional Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice and Discrimination: The Vicious Circle Majority and Minority: Patterns of Interaction Pluralism Assimilation Segregation Genocide Race and Ethnicity in the United States Native Americans White Anglo-Saxon Protestants African Americans Asian Americans Hispanic Americans/Latinos Arab Americans White Ethnic Americans Race and Ethnicity: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 12: Economics and Politics The Economy: Historical Overview The Agricultural Revolution The Industrial Revolution The Information Revolution and Postindustrial Society Sectors of the Economy The Global Economy Economic Systems: Paths to Justice Capitalism Socialism Welfare Capitalism and State Capitalism Relative Advantages of Capitalism and Socialism Changes in Socialist and Capitalist Countries Work in the Postindustrial U.S. Economy The Changing Workplace Labor Unions Professions Self-Employment Unemployment and Underemployment Workplace Diversity: Race and Gender New Information Technology and Work Corporation Economic Concentration Conglomerates and Corporate Linkages Corporation: Are They Competitive? Corporations and the Global Economy The Economy: Looking Ahead Politics: Historical Overview Politics in Global Perspective Monarchy Democracy Authoritarianism Totalitarianism A Global Political System? Politics in the United States U.S. Culture and the Rise of the Welfare State The Political Spectrum Party Identification Special-Interest Groups Voter Apathy Should Convicted Criminals Vote? Theoretical Analysis of Power in Society The Pluralist Mode: The People Rule The Power-Elite Model: A Few People Rule The Marxist Model: The System Is Biased Power beyond the Rules Revolution Terrorism War and Peace The Causes of War Social Class and the Military Seeing Sociology in the News "GI Jane Breaks the Combat Barrier" Is Terrorism a New Kind of War? The Costs and Causes of Militarism Nuclear Weapons Mass Media and War Pursuing Peace Politics: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 13: Family and Religion Family: Basic Concepts Family: Global Variations Marriage Patterns Residential Patterns Patterns of Descent Patterns of Authority Theoretical Analysis of Families Functions of Family: Structural-Functional Analysis Inequality and Family: Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis Stages of Family Life Courtship and Romantic Love Seeing Sociology in the News "Prenuptial Agreements: Unromantic, but Necessary" Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage Child Rearing The Family in Later Life U.S. Families: Class, Race, and Gender Social Class Ethnicity and Race Gender Transitions and Problems in Family Life Divorce Remarriage and Blended Families Family Violence Alternative Family Forms One-Parent Families Cohabitation Gay and Lesbian Couples Singlehood New Reproductive Technologies and Family Families: Looking Ahead Religion: Basic Concepts Theoretical Analysis of Religion Functions of Religion: Structural-Functional Analysis Constructing the Sacred: Symbolic-Interaction Analysis Inequality and Religion: Social-Conflict Analysis Religion and Social Change Max Weber: Protestantism and Capitalism Liberation Theology Types of Religious Organization Church Sect Cult Religion in History Religion in the United States Religious Commitment Religion: Class, Ethnicity, and Race Religion in a Changing Society Changing Affiliation Secularization Civil Religion "New Age" Seekers: Spirituality without Formal Religion Religious Revival: "Good Old-Time Religion" Religion: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Makin the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 14: Education, Health, and Medicine Education: A Global Survey Schooling and Economic Development Schooling in India Schooling in Japan Schooling in the United States The Functions of Schooling Schooling and Social Interaction The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Schooling and Social Inequality Public and Private Education Access to Higher Education Greater Opportunity: Expanding Higher Education Seeing Sociology in the News "New Meaning for Night Classes at Two-Year Colleges" Privilege and Personal Merit Problems in the Schools Discipline and Violence Student Passivity Dropping Out Academic Standards Grade Inflation Issues in U.S. Education School Choice Home Schooling Schooling People with Disabilities Adult Education The Teacher Shortage Schooling: Looking Ahead Health and Medicine Health and Society Health: A Global Survey Health in Low-Income Countries Health in High-Income Countries Health in the United States Who Is Healthy? Age, Gender, Class, and Race Cigarette Smoking Eating Disorders Obesity Sexually Transmitted Diseases Ethical Issues Surrounding Death The Medical Establishment The Rise of Scientific Medicine Holistic Medicine Paying for Medical Care: The United States The Nursing Shortage Theoretical Analysis of Health and Medicine Structural-Functional Analysis: Role Theory Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: The Meaning of Health Social-Conflict and Feminist Analysis Health and Medicine: Looking Ahead Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization, and Environment Demography: The Study of Population Fertility Mortality Migration Population Growth Population Composition History and Theory of Population Growth Malthusian Theory Demographic Transition Theory Global Population Today: A Brief Summary Urbanization: The Growth of Cities The Evolution of Cities The Growth of U.S. Cities Suburbs and Urban Decline Sunbelt Cities and Urban Sprawl Megalopolis: The Regional City Edge Cities The Rural Rebound Urbanism as a Way of Life Ferdinand Toennies: Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft Emile Durkheim: Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Georg Simmel: The Blase Urbanite The Chicago School: Robert Park and Louis Wirth Urban Ecology Urban Political Economy Urbanization in Poor Nations Environment and Society The Global Dimension Technology and the Environmental Deficit Seeing Sociology in the News "Boyz Under the Hood" Culture: Growth and Limits Solid Waste: The Disposable Society Water and Air The Rain Forests Environmental Racism Looking Ahead: Toward a Sustainable Society and World Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern and Postmodern Societies What Is Social Change? Causes of Social Change Culture and Change Conflict and Change Ideas and Change Demographic Change Social Movements and Change Seeing Sociology in the News "Facebook Helps Spark Movements" Disasters: Unexpected Change Modernity Ferdinand Toennies: The Loss of Community Emile Durkheim: The Division of Labor Max Weber: Rationalization Karl Marx: Capitalism Structural-Functional Analysis: Modernity as Mass Society The Mass Scale of Modern Life The Ever Expanding State Social-Conflict Analysis: Modernity as Class Society Capitalism Persistent Inequality Modernity and the Individual Mass Society: Problems of Identity Class Society: Problems of Powerlessness Modernity and Progress Modernity: Global Variation Postmodernity Looking Ahead: Modernization and Our Global Future Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Making the Grade Visual Summary

Promotional Information

Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life Society: The Basics is designed to help students view their everyday lives through a sociological lens. With a strong theoretical framework and a global perspective, Society offers students an accessible and relevant introduction to sociology. In Society: The Basics, Eleventh Edition, John J. Macionis shares his enthusiasm and teaching experience with a clear and engaging approach.

About the Author

John J. Macionis was born and raised in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He earned a bachelor's degree from Cornell University and a doctorate in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania. John Macionis' publications are wide-ranging, focusing on community life in the United States, interpersonal intimacy in families, effective teaching, humor, new information technology, and the importance of global education. In addition, John Macionis and Nijole V. Benokraitis have edited the best-selling anthology Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology. Macionis and Vincent Parrillo have written the leading urban studies text, Cities and Urban Life (Pearson). Macionis' most recent textbook is Social Problems (Pearson). John Macionis is Professor and Distinguished Scholar of Sociology at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio, where he has taught for almost thirty years. During that time, he has chaired the Sociology Department, directed the college's multidisciplinary program in humane studies, presided over the campus senate and the college's faculty, and taught sociology to thousands of students. In 2002, the American Sociological Association presented Macionis with the Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching, citing his innovative use of global material as well as the introduction of new teaching technology in his textbooks. Professor Macionis has been active in academic programs in other countries, having traveled to some fifty nations. He writes, "I am an ambitious traveler, eager to learn and, through the texts, to share much of what I discover with students, many of whom know little about the rest of the world. For me, traveling and writing are all dimensions of teaching. First, and foremost, I am a teacher-a passion for teaching animates everything I do." At Kenyon, Macionis teaches a number of courses, but his favorite class is Introduction to Sociology, which he offers every semester. He enjoys extensive contact with students and invites everyone enrolled in each of his classes to enjoy a home-cooked meal. The Macionis family-John, Amy, and children McLean and Whitney-live on a farm in rural Ohio. In his free time, Macionis enjoys tennis, swimming, hiking, and playing oldies rock-and-roll (he recently released his first CD). Macionis is as an environmental activist in the Lake George region of New York's Adirondack Mountains, working with a number of organizations, including the Lake George Land Conservancy, where he serves as president of the board of trustees.


Brennon Williams is the Chief Technology Officer for the award-winning UK design and development agency, Splendid. Brennon is also a technical advisor to several companies around the world, specializing in the implementation of designer/developer collaboration and workflows. For almost two decades, Brennon has worked in several countries as a consultant software developer and technical advisor. Owner of the website which is due to be launched in 2011, Brennon's technology insights can also be followed at his personal blog, Brennon was awarded a BS in Computer Science from NYU and has received the Microsoft MVP award for Expression Blend 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011.

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