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Rules of Thumb in Engineering Practice

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Table of Contents

Preface. 1 Rules of Thumb. 1.1 Rules of Thumb about Process Equipment. 1.2 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Physical and Thermal Properties. 1.3 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Corrosion. 1.4 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Process Control (based on communication from T.E. Marlin, McMaster University, 2001). 1.5 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Batch versus Continuous. 1.6 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Heterogenous Phase contacting. 1.6.1 GL Systems. 1.6.2 LL Systems. 1.6.3 GLS Systems. 1.6.4 Particulate Systems. 1.7 Rules of Thumb about the Context for a Chemical Process: Economics. 1.8 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Problem Solving and Creativity. 1.9 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Goal Setting. 1.10 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Decision Making. 1.11 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Thermal Pinch. 1.12 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: "Systems" Thinking. 1.13 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Design. 1.14 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Process Improvement. 1.15 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Trouble Shooting. 1.16 Rules of Thumb about the Thinking Process: Environment, Waste Minimization, Safety. 1.17 Rules of Thumb about the People Part of Engineering: Communication. 1.18 Rules of Thumb about the People Part of Engineering: Listening. 1.19 Rules of Thumb about the People Part of Engineering: People Skills. 1.20 Rules of Thumb about the People Part of Engineering: Team and Group Skills. 1.21 Rules of Thumb about the Context in Which We Function: Performance Review. 1.22 Rules of Thumb about the Context in Which We Function: Leadership. 1.23 Rules of Thumb about the Context in Which We Function: Intrepreneurship (based on Valikangas, 2003 and Cooper, 1987). 1.24 Rules of Thumb about the Context in Which We Function: Entrepreneurship. 1.25 Rules of Thumb about the Context in Which We Function: e-Business. 1.26 Rules of Thumb about Mentoring and Self-management. 1.27 Summary. 2 Transportation. 2.1 Gas Moving: Pressure Service. 2.2 Gas Moving: Vacuum Service. 2.3 Liquid. 2.4 Gas-Liquid (Two-phase Flow). 2.5 Pumping Slurries: Liquid-Solid Systems. 2.6 Solids. 2.7 Ducts and Pipes. 3 Energy Exchange. 3.1 Drives. 3.2 Thermal Energy: Furnaces. 3.3 Thermal Energy: Fluid Heat Exchangers, Condensers and Boilers. 3.4 Thermal Energy: Fluidized Bed (Coils in Bed). 3.5 Thermal Energy: Static Mixers. 3.6 Thermal Energy: Direct Contact L-L Immiscible Liquids. 3.7 Thermal Energy: Direct Contact G-L Cooling Towers. 3.8 Thermal Energy: Direct Contact G-L Quenchers. 3.9 Thermal Energy: Direct Contact G-L Condensers. 3.10 Thermal Energy: G-G Thermal Wheels and Pebble Regenerators and Regenerators. 3.11 Thermal Energy: Heat Loss to the Atmosphere. 3.12 Thermal Energy: Refrigeration. 3.13 Thermal Energy: Steam Generation and Distribution. 3.14 High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids. 3.15 Tempered Heat Exchange Systems. 4 Homogeneous Separation. 4.1 Evaporation. 4.2 Distillation. 4.3 Freeze Concentration. 4.4 Melt Crystallization. 4.5 Zone Refining. 4.6 Solution Crystallization. 4.7 Precipitation. 4.8 Gas Absorption. 4.9 Gas Desorption/Stripping. 4.10 Solvent Extraction, SX. 4.11 Adsorption: Gas. 4.12 Adsorption: Liquid. 4.13 Ion Exchange. 4.14 Foam Fractionation. 4.15 Membranes and Membrane Configurations. 4.15.1 Membranes. 4.15.2 Membrane Operation and Configuration. 4.16 Membranes: Gas. 4.17 Membranes: Dialysis. 4.18 Membranes: Electrodialysis. 4.19 Membranes: Pervaporation. 4.20 Membranes: Reverse Osmosis, RO. 4.21 Membranes: Nanofiltration. 4.22 Membranes: Ultrafiltration, UF. 4.23 Membranes: Microfiltration. 4.24 Chromatography. 5 Heterogeneous Separations. 5.1 Gas-Liquid. 5.2 Gas-Solid. 5.3 Liquid-Liquid. 5.3.1 Decanter. 5.3.2 Hydrocyclone. 5.3.3 Sedimentation Centrifuge. 5.4 Gas-Liquid-Liquid Separators. 5.5 Liquid-Solid: General Selection. 5.6 Dryers. 5.7 Screens for "Dewatering" or Liquid-Solid Separation. 5.8 Settlers. 5.9 Hydrocyclones. 5.10 Thickener. 5.11 CCD: Counter Current Decantation. 5.12 Sedimentation Centrifuges. 5.13 Filtering Centrifuge. 5.14 Filter. 5.15 Leacher. 5.16 Liquid-Solid: Dissolved Air Flotation, DAF. 5.17 Liquid-Solid: Expeller and Hydraulic Press. 5.18 Solid-Solid: General Selection. 5.19 Froth Flotation. 5.20 Electrostatic. 5.21 Magnetic. 5.22 Hydrocyclones. 5.23 Air Classifiers. 5.24 Rake Classifiers. 5.25 Spiral Classifiers. 5.26 Jig Concentrators. 5.27 Table Concentrators. 5.28 Sluice Concentrators. 5.29 Dense Media Concentrators, DMS. 5.30 Screens. 6 Reactors. 6.1 Factors Affecting the Choice of Reactor. 6.2 General Guidelines. 6.2.1 General Rules of Thumb for the Type of Reactor. 6.2.2 Specific Guidelines for Gas Phase, Liquid Phase and Gas-Liquid Reactions. 6.2.3 Specific Guidelines for Reactions using Catalysts. 6.2.4 Specific Guidelines for Gases Reacting with Solid. 6.2.5 Bioreactors. 6.2.6 Reactors for Supercritical Conditions. 6.2.7 Reactors for Polymerization. 6.2.8 Using the Phases to Guide in the Choice of Reactor Configuration. 6.3 How the Type of Reaction Affects the Size of the Reactor. 6.4 Burner. 6.5 PFTR: Pipe/Tube, Empty Pipe for Fluid Systems. 6.6 PFTR: Static Mixer in Tube. 6.7 PFTR: Empty Pipe/Tube for Fluids and Solids. 6.8 PFTR: Empty Multitube, Nonadiabatic. 6.9 PFTR: Fixed Bed Catalyst in Tube or Vessel: Adiabatic. 6.10 PFTR: Multi-bed Adiabatic with Inter-bed Quench or Heating. 6.11 PFTR: Fixed Bed with Radial Flow. 6.12 PFTR: Multitube Fixed Bed Catalyst or Bed of Solid Inerts: Nonadiabatic. 6.13 PFTR: Bubble Reactor. 6.14 PFTR: Spray Reactor and Jet Nozzle Reactor. 6.15 PFTR: Trays. 6.16 PFTR: Packing. 6.17 PFTR: Trickle Bed. 6.18 PFTR: Monolithic. 6.19 PFTR: Thin Film. 6.20 PFTR: Scraped Surface Reactor. 6.21 PFTR: Multiple Hearth. 6.22 PFTR: Traveling Grate. 6.23 PFTR: Rotary Kiln. 6.24 PFTR, Shaft Furnace. 6.25 PFTR, Melting Cyclone Burner. 6.26 PFTR via Multistage CSTR. 6.27 STR: Batch (Backmix). 6.28 STR: Semibatch. 6.29 CSTR: Mechanical Mixer (Backmix). 6.30 STR: Fluidized Bed (Backmix). 6.31 TR: Tank Reactor. 6.32 Mix of CSTR, PFTR with Recycle. 6.33 STR: PFTR with Large Recycle. 6.34 Reaction Injection Molding and Reactive Extrusion. 6.35 Reactive Distillation, Extraction, Crystallization. 6.36 Membrane Reactors. 6.37 Liquid Piston Reactor. 7 Mixing. 7.1 Liquids. 7.2 Liquid-Liquid (Immiscible). 7.3 Liquid-Solid. 7.3.1 Solids Suspension. 7.3.2 Solids Dispersion. 7.3.3 Solids Dissolving. 7.3.4 Solids Flocculating. 7.3.5 Liquid Fluidized Bed. 7.4 Dry Solids. 8 Size Reduction. 8.1 Gas in Liquid (Foams). 8.2 Liquid in Gas (Sprays). 8.3 Liquid-Liquid. 8.4 Cell Disintegration. 8.5 Solids: Crushing and Grinding. 9 Size Enlargement. 9.1 Size Enlargement: Liquid-Gas: Demisters. 9.2 Size Enlargement: Liquid-Liquid: Coalescers. 9.3 Size Enlargement: Solid in Liquid: Coagulation/Flocculation. 9.4 Size Enlargement: Solids: Fluidization. 9.5 Size Enlargement: Solids: Spherical agglomeration. 9.6 Size Enlargement: Solids: Disc Agglomeration. 9.7 Size Enlargement: Solids: Drum Granulator. 9.8 Size Enlargement: Solids: Briquetting. 9.9 Size Enlargement: Solids: Tabletting. 9.10 Size Enlargement: Solids: Pelleting. 9.11 Solids: Modify Size and Shape: Extruders, Food Extruders, Pug Mills and Molding Machines. 9.12 Solids: Solidify Liquid to Solid: Flakers, Belts and Prill Towers. 9.13 Coating. 10 Process Vessels and Facilities. 10.1 Process Vessels. 10.2 Storage Vessels for Gases and Liquids. 10.3 Bins and Hoppers for Bulk Solids. 10.4 Bagging Machines. Appendix A: Units and Conversion of Units. Appendix B: Dimensionless Groups. Appendix C: Cox Charts - Vapor Pressures. Appendix D: Capital Cost Guidelines. D.1 Equipment Cost Correlations. D.2 Converting the FOB Cost into a Bare Module Cost. D.3 Converting FOB and L+M Costs into Total Fixed Capital Investment Costs. D.4 Detailed Equipment Cost Data Based on Equipment Type. Index.

About the Author

Donald R. Woods is Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at McMaster University. He received his BSc from Queen's University, his MS and PhD from the University of Wisconsin and worked for a wide variety of industries before joining McMaster University in 1964. His research interests are in process design, cost estimation, surface phenomena, problem-based learning, assessment, improving student learning and developing skill in problem solving, group and team work, self assessment, change management and lifetime learning. He has won numerous awards for leadership and teaching including the Canadian 3M Fellow, honorary Doctor of Science degrees (Queen's University, University of Guelph), the President's Award for Educational Leadership, co-winner of the President's Award for Course Development, Lifetime Achievement Award from Chemical Engineering Education and Wickenden Award from ASEE (twice). He has over 400 publications including the books Financial Decision making in the Process Industry, Process Design and Engineering Practice, and Problem-based Learning - How to Gain the Most from PBL.The latter has been translated into Japanese, Korean and Spanish. He is one of 20 Chemical Engineers from industry, government and universities to receive the Century of Achievement Award from the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering for distinguished contributions to Chemical Engineering.

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