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A Reformation Sourcebook

During the Reformation, Europeans were engaged in a debate that would alter the course of European history. This debate was about how to understand and practice the Christian faith. Never before had so many people weighed in on a topic of such importance. This book presents the debates of the Reformation era through over eighty primary sources. Some of the documents present formal debates. Others represent informal debates or disputes, with one text responding directly to the other. Still other sections present texts that offer divergent approaches to or perspectives on specific ideas. These too were part of the century-long debate that characterized the Reformation. The author provides an essay on how to read primary sources. Each chapter opens with a brief introduction, and each group of primary sources is preceded by information on historical context as well as focus questions. Further readings are provided at the end of each chapter, and a map of Europe divided by religions is included.
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Table of Contents

Preface How to Read a Primary Document I The Late Medieval Background to the Reformation I. Papal Authority 1. Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam, 1302 2. The Council of Constance A. Haec Sancta, 1415 B. Frequens, 1417 3. Pope Pius II, Execrabilis, 1459 II. Late Medieval Heresy 4. Jan Hus, The Church, 1413 5. Council of Constance, Sentence against Jan Hus, 1415 III. Scholasticism and Humanism 6. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, III.75(2), Transubstantiation, 1274 7. Erasmus of Rotterdam, Paraclesis, 1516 IV. Lay Piety 8. Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, Early Thirteenth Century A. "Virgin in Place of a Nun Who Had Fled from the Convent" B. "Concerning a Merchant to Whom a Harlot Sold the Arm of St. John the Baptist" 9. Erasmus, Colloquies, "The Religious Pilgrimage," 1526 Further Reading II The Development of Martin Luther's Thought V. The Indulgence Controversy 10. Martin Luther, Sermon on Indulgences and Grace, 1518 11. Johann Tetzel, Rebuttal against Luther's Sermon on Indulgences and Grace, 1518 VI. Luther's Three Treatises, Part 1: Address to the Christian Nobility and the Priesthood of All Believers 12. Luther, Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, 1520 13. Johannes Eck, Enchiridion, "The Sacrament of Holy Orders," 1555 VII. Luther's Three Treatises, Part 2: The Babylonian Captivity and the Sacraments 14. Luther, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, 1520 15. King Henry VIII, Defense of the Seven Sacraments, 1521 VIII. Luther's Three Treatises, Part 3: Freedom of a Christian and Justification by Faith Alone 16. Luther, The Freedom of a Christian, 1520 17. Eck, Enchiridion, "Faith and Good Works," 1533 IX. Luther and Erasmus on Free Will 18. Erasmus, On Free Will, 1524 19. Luther, The Bondage of the Will, 1525 Further Reading II The Early Radical Wing and the German Peasants' War X. Karlstadt, Luther, and the Debate over Images and the Speed of Reform 20. Karlstadt, On the Removal of Images, 1522 21. Luther, Invocavit Sermons, 1522 A. The First Sermon, March 9, 1522, Invocavit Sunday B. The Third Sermon, March 11, 1522, Tuesday after Invocavit 22. Karlstadt, Whether One Should Proceed Slowly, 1524 XI. Thomas M ntzer, Spiritualism, and Social Revolution 23. Thomas M ntzer, Sermon before the Princes, 1524 24. Luther, Letter to the Princes of Saxony Concerning the Rebellious Spirit, 1524 XII. The German Peasants' War 25. The Twelve Articles of the Peasants, 1525 26. Luther, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants, 1525 Further Reading IV Ulrich Zwingli, the Reformed Tradition, and Swiss Anabaptism XIII. Zwingli and the Reformation in Zurich 27. The First Zurich Disputation, January 1523 XIV. The Colloquy of Marburg 28. The Debate at the Colloquy of Marburg, 1529 XV. Zwingli and the Anabaptists 29. The Schleitheim Confession of Faith, 1527 30. Zwingli, Refutation of the Tricks of the Catabaptists, 1527 Further Reading V French Reform and Calvinism XVI. The Reform Group of Meaux 31. Jacques Lef vre d'Etaples, Preface to the French Translation of the Gospels, 1523 32. Paris Faculty of Theology, Condemnation of the Meaux Reforms, 1523 XVII. The Affair of the Placards 33. Antoine Marcourt, the Placards of 1534 34. Paris Processions in Response to the Placards, 1534-1535 XVIII. John Calvin's Thought 35. John Calvin, Instruction and Confession of Faith Used in the Church of Geneva, 1537 XIX. Calvin's Debate with Sadoleto 36. Jacopo Sadoleto, Letter to Geneva, 1539 37. Calvin, Reply to Sadoleto, 1539 XX. Moral Discipline in Geneva 38. Geneva Ordinances A. Ordinances for the Regulation of the Churches Dependent upon the Seigniory of Geneva, 1547 B. The Ecclesiastical Ordinances of 1561 39. Geneva Consistory Records Further Reading VI The English Reformation XXI. Thomas More and William Tyndale on the English Bible 40. Thomas More, Dialogue Concerning Heresies, 1529 41. William Tyndale, An Answer to Sir Thomas More's Dialogue, 1531 XXII. Henry VIII's Break from Rome 42. Henry VIII's Reformation Parliament, Act of Supremacy, 1534 (26 Henry VIII c. 1) 43. Trial of Sir Thomas More, 1535 XXIII. Protestantism under Edward VI and Catholicism under Mary I 44. Thomas Cranmer, Homily or Sermon of Good Works Annexed unto Faith, 1547 45. Cardinal Reginald Pole, Speech to the Citizens of London, c. 1555 XXIV. Elizabethan (Un)settlement: Puritans and Anglicans 46. John Field and Thomas Wilcox, Admonition to Parliament, 1572 47. Richard Hooker, The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, 1594 Further Reading VII The Catholic/Counter-Reformation XXV. The Council of Trent, 1545-1563 48. Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent 49. Calvin, Antidote to the Council of Trent, 1547 XXVI. Women, Mysticism, and Inquisition 50. Teresa of vila, The Way of Perfection, 1583 51. The Inquisition Trial of Francisca de los Ap stoles, 1575-1577 XXVII. The Society of Jesus and Campion's Brag 52. Edmund Campion, Challenge to the Privy Council (Campion's Brag), 1580 53. William Charke, An Answer to a Seditious Pamphlet, 1581 Further Reading VIII Wars of Religion XXVIII. The Wars of Kappel, 1529-1531 54. Kappel Declarations of War A. Zurich's Declaration of War, June 8, 1529 B. The Catholic Cantons' Declaration of War, 1531 55. Zwingli's Death at the Battle of Kappel: Two Accounts, 1531 A. A Catholic Version B. Heinrich Bullinger's Account XXIX. The Schmalkaldic War and the Peace of Augsburg, 1546-1555 56. Alliance between Emperor Charles V and Pope Paul III, 1546 192 57. The Peace of Augsburg, 1555 XXX. The French Wars of Religion, 1562-1598 58. Giovanni Michiel, Venetian Ambassador's Report on the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, 1572 59. Marc-Antoine de Muret, Oration before Pope Gregory XIII, 1572 60. Nicholas Barnaud(?), Reveille-Matin: Wake-Up Call for the French and Their Neighbors, 1574 Further Reading IX Cultural Impact of the Reformation, Part 1: Christian Life and Practice XXXI. Baptism 61. Catholic Rite of Baptism from the Sarum Missal, 1543 62. Protestant Baptism: A Rite of Baptism Used at Strasbourg, 1525-1530 XXXII. Food and Fasting 63. Zwingli, Concerning Choice and Liberty Respecting Food, 1522 64. Francis de Sales on Fasting, Sermon for Ash Wednesday, c. 1620 XXXIII. Carnival and Lent 65. Description of Carnival in Rouen, 1541 66. Philip Stubbs, Anatomy of Abuses, 1583 67. King James I, Book of Sports, 1618 XXXIV. Music 68. Luther on Music A. Luther to George Spalatin on Hymns, 1523 B. Luther, Preface to the Hymnal of 1524 69. Conrad Grebel, Letter to Thomas M ntzer, 1524 70. Calvin, Preface to the Huguenot Psalter, 1543 XXXV. Death and Dying 71. Catherine of Genoa, Treatise on Purgatory, c. 1510 72. Anonymous (Guillaume Farel's Circle), Treatise on Purgatory, 1534 73. Protestant and Catholic Funerals A. Catholic Ritual: Erasmus, Colloquies, "The Funeral," 1526 B. Calvinist Ritual: The Parisian Passwind on Geneva Funerals Further Reading X Cultural Impact of the Reformation, Part 2: Social Relations and Customs XXXVI. Women 74. John Knox, First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558 75. Marie Denti re, Epistle to Marguerite of Navarre, 1538 76. Katharina Sch tz Zell, Letter to Caspar Schwenckfeld, 1553 XXXVII. Sex, Chastity, and Marriage 77. Luther, The Estate of Marriage, 1522 78. Eck, Enchiridion, "The Celibacy of the Clergy," 1529 79. Ana de San Bartolom , Autobiography, 1625 XXXVIII. The Jews 80. Johannes Pfefferkorn, The Jews' Mirror, 1507 81. Johannes Reuchlin, Recommendation Whether to Confiscate, Destroy, and Burn All Jewish Books, 1510 82. Luther, That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew, 1523 83. Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies, 1543 XXXIX. The Servetus Affair and Religious Toleration 84. Sebastian Castellio, Concerning Heretics, Whether They Are to Be Persecuted and How They Are to Be Treated, 1554 85. Theodore Beza, The Authority of the Magistrate in Punishing Heretics, 1554 XL. Slavery 86. The Iwie Debate, 1568 Further Reading Sources

Promotional Information

The Reformation was a cauldron of disagreement and conflict wherein reform ideas and practices were formulated through the act of argument and disputation. Bruening's collection of primary sources is the first volume to reflect this critical dimension of the Reformation. The selection of documents is superb, covering the major theological, political, cultural, and social conflicts of the era. The disagreements inherent in these sources will spark some exciting debates among students. A Reformation Sourcebook is a fabulous resource that will further the understanding of the issues over which sixteenth-century people fought, died, and killed. -- Gary K. Waite, University of New Brunswick This collection is wonderfully balanced and superbly edited. Bruening has carefully chosen documents that address with precision the broad range of Reformation controversies. The selections are pertinent, illuminating, and accessible. They form a valuable resource for teaching the Reformation at any level. -- Raymond A. Mentzer, University of Iowa I have found my new source reader for my Reformation course. This reader offers rich material in an eminently teachable debate format. -- Craig Koslofsky, University of Illinois

About the Author

Michael W. Bruening is Associate Professor in the History and Political Science department at Missouri University of Science and Technology. His previous publications include Calvinism's First Battleground (2005) and Epistolae Petri Vireti (2012).


"Bruening has provided a valuable service in the many ways this reader will facilitate learning about sixteenth-century Reformation movements. Its many features make it exceptionally helpful for classroom use. Its structure also helps teach empathy. Bruening writes that 'to understand the Reformation, one must understand both sides of the debates that took place at the time; this sourcebook will help you do just that' (xvi). Yes, it will!" - Donald K. McKim, Reformation Bruening's source book stands out mainly for its focus on matters of debate and contention (such as the Eucharist) rather than on less-controverted subjects such as spirituality or preaching on morals. An invaluable tool for undergraduates studying the Protestant Reformation. - J.P. Blosser, Benedictine College - CHOICE

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