Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Sharon Would Like to Thank Nicole Would Like to Thank About the Authors Chapter 1: Qualitative Research: An Opening Orientation An Overview of the Processes of Qualitative Research Defining and Situating Qualitative Research Key Components of Qualitative Research Horizontal Values in Qualitative Research: Criticality, Reflexivity, Collaboration, and Rigor Approaches to Qualitative Research: An Overview A Note on the Possibilities of Qualitative Research Chapter 2: Conceptual Frameworks in Research Conceptual Frameworks in Research Developing a Conceptual Framework Building Your Conceptual Framework Chapter 3: Qualitative Research Design Research Design in Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Design Processes Sampling: Site and Participant Selection Writing in Research Design Conclusion Chapter 4: Reflexivity in Data Collection Defining Qualitative Research as Iterative Reflexivity in Data Collection Reflexivity and Researcher-Generated Data Sources Chapter 5: Methods of Data Collection Interviews Observational Fieldnotes Focus Groups Documents and Archival Data Open-Ended Questionnaires Participatory Methods of Data Collection Revisiting Research Design Chapter 6: Validity in Qualitative Research Overview of Validity in Qualitative Research Assessing Validity Strategies for Achieving Qualitative Validity Rigor and Validity in Qualitative Research Chapter 7: Ethics and Relational Research Relational Ethics: Taking a Relational Approach to Research Deepening Research Ethics: Beyond IRB and Informed Consent Beyond Negotiating Entree and Building Rapport Research Boundaries Informed Consent, with an Emphasis on Informed Transparency in Goals, Expectations, Processes, and Roles Confidentiality and Anonymity The Ethical Dimensions of the Researcher as Instrument Pushing Against the Expert-Learner Binary Ethical Collaboration: Dialectics of Mutual Influence Balancing Design Flexibility and Rigor: Responsive Research as an Ethical Stance Chapter 8: An Integrative Approach to Data Analysis Defining and Critically Approaching Qualitative Data Analysis Analysis and Interpretation Overview of Qualitative Data Analysis Processes An Integrative Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis Chapter 9: Methods and Processes of Data Analysis Data Organization and Managements Immersive Engagement Writing and Representation Chapter 10: Writing and Representing Research: The Research Report The Craft of Writing: Outlining, Drafting, and Revising Writing a Final Report: Building On, Deepening, and Codifying Analysis Critical Writing Considerations Concluding Thoughts: The Ethics of Research Writing Chapter 11: Qualitative Research Proposals Qualitative Research Proposals Writing Quality Research Proposals Adapting Research Proposals Epilogue Revisiting the Horizontal Values in Qualitative Research Closing Thoughts: The Power and Potential of Qualitative Research Glossary Appendixes References Index
Sharon M. Ravitch is a professor of practice at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education. She engages in numerous applied research projects in India, serving as a visiting scholar at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in Mumbai and working as a co-researcher and key resource expert in policy advocacy, professional development, and community-based participatory research related to corporate social responsibility through TISS's corporate social responsibility hub. She is involved in the design and implementation of assessment and evaluation of statewide performance through mixed-methods research in the Ministry of Human Resource Development's major policy initiative, Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA), a countrywide reform initiative aimed to resurrect India's state public university system. Ravitch is also an expert adviser at the Center for Academic Leadership and Education Management at TISS. The center provides professional development and policy advocacy support to school education leaders across India. Ravitch works in the center's capacity-building program to collaboratively develop case studies and technology-innovation frameworks for the higher education and K-12 sectors using a participatory approach. She received the prestigious GIAN Scholar Award from the government of India for 2016-2017 and the RUSA Scholar Award for 2017-2018. Ravitch also received a Fulbright Fellowship to engage in research and applied development work in India from 2017 to 2019. Ravitch has published five books: Applied Research for Sustainable Change: A Guide for Education Leaders (with Nicole Carl, 2019); Qualitative Research: Bridging the Conceptual, Theoretical, and Methodological (2nd ed., with Nicole Carl, 2020); Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research (2012; 2nd ed., with Matthew Riggan, 2016); School Counseling Principles: Diversity and Multiculturalism (2006); and Matters of Interpretation: Reciprocal Transformation in Therapeutic and Developmental Relationships With Youth (with Michael Nakkula, 1998). Nicole Mittenfelner Carl is a postdoctoral fellow in the Teaching, Learning, and Leadership Division at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. She received her doctorate in educational leadership from the University of Pennsylvania in 2017. Carl teaches courses related to qualitative research methods, practitioner research for educational leaders, and mentoring strategies for veteran teachers coaching first-year teachers. Carl has been conducting qualitative research for more than a decade, beginning in 2005, when she was awarded a Mellon Fellowship. Since then, she has led and participated in numerous qualitative and mixed-methods research projects. She recently co-authored a text for Harvard Education Press, Applied Research for Sustainable Change: A Guide for Education Leaders, that exemplifies ways for practitioners to use local research as a driver of school change. Carl has also published several articles on students' experiences with schooling, democratizing schooling, the impacts of educational policies on teachers and leaders, and applied research in peer-reviewed journals. Carl has worked with school leaders, teachers, and students in various settings (public and independent) to consider ways to use research to drive school improvement. She has also led a multiyear, multisite evaluation of the impact of these projects on the schools and individuals involved. She continues to research ways that practitioners can conduct and use research in their schools, and she supports educators in the implementation of these projects.