Chapter One: Qualitative Research: An Opening Orientation Chapter Overview And Goals An Overview Of The Processes Of Qualitative Research Situating Qualitative Research Defining Qualitative Research Key Components Of Qualitative Research Horizontals In Qualitative Research Approaches To Qualitative Research: An Overview A Note on the Possibilities Of Qualitative Research Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Two: Using Conceptual Frameworks in Research Chapter Overview and Goals Defining and Understanding Conceptual Frameworks and Their Role in Research Constructing and Developing a Conceptual Framework Building Your Own Conceptual Framework Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Three: Critical Qualitative Research Design Chapter Overview and Goals Research Design in Qualitative Research Overview of the Qualitative Research Design Process Conceptualizing Critical Qualitative Research Design Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Four: Design and Reflexivity in Data Collection Chapter Overview and Goals Defining Qualitative Data Collection as Iterative Data Collection and Research Design Reflexivity and Researcher-Generated Data Sources Sampling: Site and Participant Selection Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Five: Methods of Data Collection Chapter Overview and Goals Interviews Observation and Fieldnotes Focus Groups Documents and Archival Data A Survey Approach and Questionnaires Participatory Methods of Data Collection Revisiting Design Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Six: Validity: Processes, Strategies, and Trustworthiness Chapter Overview and Goals Overview of Validity and Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Assessing Validity and Trustworthiness Specific Strategies and Processes for Achieving Validity Rigor and Validity in Qualitative Research Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Seven: An Integrative Approach to Data Analysis Chapter Overview and Goals Defining and Critically Approaching Qualitative Data Analysis Analysis and Interpretation Overview of Data Analysis Processes An Integrative Approach to Qualitative Data Analysis Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Eight: Methods And Processes Of Data Analysis Chapter Overview And Goals Data Organization And Management Immersive Engagement Writing And Representation Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Nine: Writing And Representing Inquiry: The Research Report Chapter Overview And Goals The Craft Of Writing: Outlining, Drafting, And Revising Writing A Final Report: Building On, Deepening, And Codifying Analysis Critical Writing Considerations Concluding Thoughts: The Ethics Of Research Writing Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Ten: Crafting Qualitative Research Proposals Chapter Overview And Goals Qualitative Research Proposals Writing Quality Proposals Adapting Research Proposals Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Chapter Eleven: Research Ethics And The Relational Quality Of Research Chapter Overview And Goals Relational Ethics: Taking A Relational Approach To Research Deepening The Concept of Research Ethics: Beyond IRB and Informed Consent Going Beyond "Negotiating Entree" And "Building Rapport" Research Boundaries Informed Consent, With An Emphasis On Informed Transparency in Goals, Expectations, Processes, and Roles Confidentiality and Anonymity The Ethical Dimensions of the "Researcher as Instrument" Pushing Against the "Expert-Learner Binary" Ethical Collaboration: "Reciprocal Transformation and Dialectics of Mutual Influence" Balance Between Design Flexibility and Rigor: Responsive Research as Ethical Stance Questions for Reflection Resources for Further Reading Epilogue: Revisiting Criticality, Reflexivity, Collaboration, and Rigor Revisiting the Horizontals in Qualitative Research Closing Thoughts: The Power and Potential of Qualitative Research Questions for Reflection
Sharon M. Ravitch, Ph.D. is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education where she is Research Co-Director at the Center for the Study of Boys' and Girls' Lives and a Founding Co-Director of Penn's Inter-American Educational Leadership Network. She serves as the Principal Investigator of Semillas Digitales (Digital Seeds) a multi-year applied development research initiative in Nicaragua (http://www2.gse.upenn.edu/nicaragua/). Ravitch's research integrates across the fields of qualitative research, education, applied development, cultural anthropology, and human development and has four main strands: (1) Practitioner Research as a means to engendering sustainable professional and institutional development and innovation; (2) International applied development research that works from participatory and action research approaches (projects currently in the US, Nicaragua, and India); (3) Ethnographic and participatory evaluation research; and (4) Leader education and professional development. Ravitch has published three books: Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research (with Matthew Riggan, Sage Publications, 2012); School Counseling Principles: Diversity and Multiculturalism (American School Counselor Association Press, 2006) and Matters of Interpretation: Reciprocal Transformation in Therapeutic and Developmental Relationships with Youth (with Michael Nakkula, Jossey-Bass, 1998). Ravitch earned two master's degrees from Harvard University in Human Development and Psychology and in Education and a doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania in an interdisciplinary program that combined anthropology, sociology, and education. Nicole Mittenfelner Carl is a doctoral candidate in the teaching, learning, and leadership division at the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education (PennGSE). She is Director of Impact Assessment for the Center for the Study of Boys' and Girls' Lives (CSBGL) and is conducting a multi-sited, multi-year participatory evaluation of the Center's impact. Carl facilitates and teaches Youth Participatory Action Research and researches ways that schools can be more equitable and humane places as a part of her work with CSBGL. Carl is also a graduate research associate at PennGSE, where she is part of a research team that examines ways that teachers and parents can organize and act collectively as a means of educational problem-solving. Carl has conducted qualitative research for over a decade. She has published articles about new teachers' experiences with standardized curricula as well as about teacher activism and organizing. Her current research focus includes critical approaches to qualitative research, participatory action research, educational equity, urban education, and teacher education. Carl is a former middle school language arts and lead teacher in the School District of Philadelphia as well as a former mentor to and supervisor of first-year teachers. Carl's research interests stem from her experiences as an educator, and she focuses her work on ways that students, parents, and teachers can work together to address educational inequities.
"The chapters are accessible and easy to read. They are also
applicable and will better help guide students in how best to
provide and support their work with theory and literature while
presenting useful information on methodology and how to conduct and
analyze qualitative research." -- Lydia Kyei-Blankson
"I believe this book would be a great resource to my doctoral students enrolled in my Introduction to Qualitative Research Design and Methodology course as well as those individuals working on their dissertation proposal development, data collection, data analysis and writing process." -- Ifeoma Amah