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Psychology (Int'l Ed)


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Table of Contents

Psychology: Making Connections

1 Introduction to Psychology
What Is Psychology?
Psychology Defined
Why Should You Study Psychology?
Psychology in the Real World: Intro to Psychology in My Everyday Life
Subdisciplines of Psychology
The Origins of Psychology
A Brief History of the Practice of Clinical Psychology
A Brief History of Scientific Psychology
Ways of Thinking About Mind, Body, and Experience
The Nature-Nurture Debate
Mind-Body Dualism
The Evolution of Human Behavior
Connections in Psychology
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Psychology: Studying Electronic
Social Interactions
Chapter Review
2 Conducting Research in Psychology
The Nature of Science
Common Sense and Logic
The Limits of Observation
What Is Science?
The Scientific Method
Research Process: The Scientific Method
What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience
Research Methods in Psychology
Principles of Research Design
Descriptive Studies
Correlational Studies
Experimental Studies
Connecting Psychologists with their Discoveries:
Robert Rosenthal and Experimenter Bias
Commonly Used Measures of Psychological Research
Self-Report Measures
Behavioral Measures
Physiological Measures
Multiple Measurement
Making Sense of Data with Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Psychology in the Real World: Beware of Statistics in Advertising
Research Ethics
Ethical Research with Humans
Ethical Research with Animals
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Research
Chapter Review
3 the Biology of Behavior
Genes and Behavior
The Complex Connection between Genes and Behavior
Polygenic Influence on Behavior
Genes and the Environment
Epigenetics: How the Environment Changes Gene Expression
The Nervous System
Organization of the Nervous System
The Cells of the Nervous System: Glial Cells and Neurons
Common Neurotransmitters
Summary of the Steps in Neural Transmission
The Brain
Evolution of the Human Brain
Overview of Brain Regions
Psychology in the Real World: Brain-Computer and Brain-Marchine Interfaces
Brain Plasticity and Neurogenesis
connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries: Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain
Measuring the Brain
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional MRI (fMRI)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
The Endocrine System
Bringing it All Together:Making Connections in the Biology of Behavior What Esref Armagan's Story Reveals About the Brain
Chapter Review
4 Sensing and Perceiving our world
The Long Strange Trip from Sensation to Perception
Basic Sensory Processes
Principles of Perception
Sensing Visual Stimuli
Connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries: Discovery of the "Halle Berry" Neuron
Perceiving Visual Stimuli
The Physics of Sound and the Psychology of Hearing
The Ear
Hearing in the Brain
Psychology in the Real World: Hearing Loss in the Age of the iPod
The Bodily Senses
The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
Smell (Olfaction)
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Sensation and Perception Differences Across Cultures
Research Process: How Culture Affects Perception of Foreground-Background
Chapter Review
5 Human Development
The Developing Fetus
Stages of Prenatal Development
Brain and Sensory Development Before Birth
Environmental Infl uences on Fetal Development
The Developing Infant and Child
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
Personality Development in Infancy
Psychology in the Real World: Musical Training Changes the Brain
Early Cognitive Development
Development of Moral Reasoning
Early Socioemotional Development
The Developing Adolescent
Physical Development in Adolescence
Cognitive and Brain Development
Social Development in Adolescence
The Developing Adult
Early Adulthood
Middle Adulthood
Death and Dying
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Development
Chapter Review
6 Consciousness
What Is Consciousness?
Two Dimensions of Consciousness: Wakefulness and Awareness
Minimal Consciousness
Moderate Consciousness
Full Consciousness
Attention: Focusing Consciousness
Selective Attention
Psychology in the Real World: Hazards of Cell Phone Use or Texting While Driving
Sustained Attention
Multi-tasking: The Implications of Shifting Attention
Meditation and Conscious Experience
Meditation Training and the Brain
Research Process: How Concentration Meditation Affects Attention
Sleeping and Dreaming
Connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries: The Discovery of REM Sleep
Altering Consciousness with Drugs
Bringing It All Together: Making Connections in Consciousness Brain injury Revisited
Chapter Review
7 Memory
Three Types of Memory
Research Process: To Come
Sensory Memory
Short-Term or Working Memory
Long-Term Memory
The Biological Basis of Memory
The Sensory Cortexes
Pathways of Short-Term Memory in the Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex
Long-Term Memory Storage in the Cortex
Emotion, Memory, and the Brain
Connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries Kande's Discoveries of Memory and the Brain
Psychology in the Real World: Memory in a Pill
Forgetting and Memory Loss
Memory Loss Caused by Brain Injury and Disease
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Memory How to Study
Chapter Review
8 Learning
Basic Processes of Learning
Habituation and the Orienting Response
Conditioning Models of Learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Psychology in the Real World: Treating Autism with Applied Behavior Analysis
Challenges to Conditioning Models of Learning
Breaking New Ground Conditioned Taste Aversion
Social Learning Theory
The Interaction of Nature and Nurture in Learning
Imitation, Mirror Neurons, and Learning
Research Process: The Discovery of Mirror Neurons
Synaptic Change During Learning
Experience, Enrichment, and Brain Growth
Making Connections in Learning Why Do People Smoke?
Chapter Review
9 Language and Thought
The Nature of Language
The Evolution of Language in Humans
Language Development in Individuals
Theories of Language Acquisition
Can Other Species Learn Human Language?
Language, Culture, and Thought
Research Process: Language and Color Discrimination
Thinking, Reasoning, and Decision Making
How Do We Represent Thoughts in Our Minds?
How Do We Reason About Evidence?
Critical Thinking
Psychology in the Real World: Applying Critical Thinking Beyond the Classroom
How Do We Make Judgments and Decisions?
Connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries: Nonrational Decision Making
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Language and Thought Learning a Second Language
Chapter Review
10 Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity
Defining Intelligence
Theories of Intelligence
Measures of Intelligence
Psychology in the Real World: Bringing Multiple Intelligences to School
Breaking New Ground Changing Intelligence Tests
Extremes of Intelligence
The Nature and Nurture of Human Intelligence
Group Differences in Intelligence Scores
Non-Western Views of Intelligence
Problem Solving
Types of Problems
Solution Strategies
Research Process: Group Versus Individual Solutions to the Jar Problem
Obstacles to Solutions
What Is Creativity?
Stages of Creative Problem Solving
Genius, Intelligence, and Creativity
Creativity and the Brain
Cognitive Processes in Creative Thinking
The Creative Personality
Making Connections in Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity Whiz Kids in Science
Chapter Review
11 Motivation and Emotion
Models of Motivation
Hunger: Survival of the Individual
Psychology in the Real World: Why Dieting Does Not Work
Sex: Survival of the Species
Research Process: Gender and Casual Sex
The Needs to Belong and to Excel
Motivation in the Workplace
Defining Emotion
Emotion as a Process
Emotion and the Brain
How Culture Impacts Emotion Expression
Gender and Emotion
Emotional intelligence
Bringing It A ll Together: Making Connections in Motivation and Emotion Living a Satisfied Life
Chapter Review
12 Stress and Health
What Is Stress?
Stress As Stimulus or Response
The Physiology of Stress
Coping Strategies
The Positive Psychology of Coping
Psychology in the Real World: Effects of Chronic Stress on Aging
How Stress and Coping Affect Health
Psychological Process and the Immune System connecting Psychologists to Their Discoveries: Linking the Nervous System and the Immune System
The Birth of Psychoimmunology
Psychological Risk Factors for Heart Disease
research on Health-Relevant Behavior
Research Process: Effects of Exercise on the Brain
Making Connections in Stress and Health The Health Psychology of HIV and AIDS
Chapter Review
13 Personality: the uniqueness of the individual
Defining Personality
The Nature and Nurture of Personality
The Evolution of Personality Traits
Genetics and Personality
Temperament and the Fetal Environment
Personality and Culture: Universality and Differences
How Do Theorists Explain Personality?
Psychoanalytic Theories
Humanistic-Positive Psychological Theories
Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
Trait Theories
Biological Theories
Breaking New Ground Animal Personality
How Is Personality Measured?
Behavioral Observation
Projective Tests
Psychology in the Real World: Screening and Selecting Police Officers
Making Connections in Personality Does Personality Change Over Time?
Research Process: Personality Change After Alzheimer's Disease
Chapter Review
14 Social Behavior
Group Living and Social Influence
Minority Social Influence
Social Perception
Detecting Deception
Exclusion and Inclusion
Prejudice and Discrimination
Breaking New Ground The Study of Implicit Bias
Attitudes and Behavior
The Nature and Nurture of Attitudes
Attitude Change
Social Relations
The Nature and Nurture of Aggression
Prosocial Behavior
Psychology in the Real World: Violent Media, Violent World
Research Process: Empathy and Pain
Liking, Attraction, and Love
Making Connections in Social Behavior Analysis of the Jonestown Cult
Chapter Review
15 Psychological Disorders
Defining Psychological Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Panic Disorder with or Without Agoraphobia
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
Specific Phobias
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Psychology in the Real World: Can Internet Use Become an Addiction?
Nature and Nurture Explanations of Anxiety Disorders
Mood Disorders
Depression and Its Causes
Research Process: Gene-Environment Interaction in the Development of Depression
Bipolar Disorder and Its Causes
Major Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
Nature and Nurture Explanations of Schizophrenia
Connecting Psychologists with Their Discoveries: The discovery of Dopamine
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Causes of Dissociative Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Somatization Disorder
Personality Disorders
Odd-Eccentric Personality Disorders
Dramatic-Emotional Personality Disorders
Anxious-Fearful Personality Disorders
Nature and Nurture Explanations of Personality Disorders
Childhood Disorders
Subtypes of Childhood Disorders
Causes of Childhood Disorders
Bringing it All Together: Making Connections in Psychological Disorders Creativity and Mental Health
Chapter Review
16 Treatment of Psychological disorders
Biological Treatments
Drug Therapies
Electric and Magnetic Therapies
Breaking New Ground Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Severe Depression
Psychological Treatments for Psychological Disorders
Psychodynamic Therapy
Humanistic Therapy
Behavioral Treatments
Cognitive and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments
Group Therapies
Psychology in the Real World: Preventing Depression
Combined Approaches
Drugs and Psychotherapy
Integrative Therapies
Mindfulness Training and Psychotherapy
Effectiveness of Treatments
Effectiveness of Biological Treatments
Effectiveness of Psychological Treatments
Research Process: Comparing Cognitive Therapy and Drug Therapy in Treatment of Depression
Effectiveness of Integrative Approaches
Making Connections in the Treatment of Psychological Disorders Approaches to the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Chapter Review
Name Index
Subject Index

Foreword by Paul Ekman

About the Author

Gregory Feist (Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley) is Associate Professor of Psychology in Adult Development at San Jose State University. Dr. Feist is widely published in the psychology of creativity, the psychology of science, and the development of scientific talent. One of his major goals is establishing the psychology of science as a healthy and independent study of science, along the lines of the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. His teaching efforts have been recognized by outstanding teaching awards at both the University of California, Davis and the University of California, Berkeley. Erika Rosenberg (Ph.D. University of California, San Francisco) served on the faculties at the University of Delaware and the College of William and Mary and currently is a researcher at the Center for Mind and Brain at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Rosenberg is an emotions researcher, health psychologist, and teacher of meditation. Her research on emotion has examined how feelings are revealed in facial expressions, how social factors influence emotional signals, and how anger affects cardiovascular health. Her current research interests include collaborative studies that integrate Western psychology with Buddhist practices for improving emotional and cognitive functioning.

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