Introduction 1 About This Book 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 4 Where to Go from Here 4 Part 1: Getting Started with Project Management 7 Chapter 1: Project Management: The Key to Achieving Results 9 Determining What Makes a Project a Project 10 Understanding the three main components that define a project 10 Recognizing the diversity of projects 11 Describing the four phases of a project life cycle 13 Defining Project Management 14 Starting with the initiating processes 16 Outlining the planning processes 17 Examining the executing processes 18 Surveying the monitoring and controlling processes 19 Ending with the closing processes 20 Knowing the Project Manager's Role 20 Looking at the project manager's tasks 20 Staving off excuses for not following a structured project-management approach 21 Avoiding shortcuts 22 Staying aware of other potential challenges 23 Do You Have What It Takes to Be an Effective Project Manager? 24 Questions 24 Answer key 25 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 26 Chapter 2: Beginning the Journey: The Genesis of a Project 27 Gathering Ideas for Projects 28 Looking at information sources for potential projects 29 Proposing a project in a business case 29 Developing the Project Charter 31 Performing a cost-benefit analysis 32 Conducting a feasibility study 34 Generating documents during the development of the project charter 35 Deciding Which Projects to Move to the Second Phase of Their Life Cycle 36 Chapter 3: Knowing Your Project's Stakeholders: Involving the Right People 37 Understanding Your Project's Stakeholders 38 Developing a Stakeholder Register 38 Starting your stakeholder register 39 Ensuring your stakeholder register is complete and up-to-date 44 Using a stakeholder register template 45 Determining Whether Stakeholders Are Drivers, Supporters, or Observers 47 Deciding when to involve your stakeholders 48 Using different methods to involve your stakeholders 51 Making the most of your stakeholders' involvement 52 Displaying Your Stakeholder Register 53 Confirming Your Stakeholders' Authority 54 Assessing Your Stakeholders' Power and Interest 56 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 57 Chapter 4: Clarifying What You're Trying to Accomplish - And Why 59 Defining Your Project with a Scope Statement 60 Looking at the Big Picture: Explaining the Need for Your Project 64 Figuring out why you're doing the project 64 Drawing the line: Where your project starts and stops 74 Stating your project's objectives 75 Marking Boundaries: Project Constraints 80 Working within limitations 80 Dealing with needs 83 Facing the Unknowns When Planning: Documenting Your Assumptions 83 Presenting Your Scope Statement in a Clear and Concise Document 84 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 85 Chapter 5: Developing Your Game Plan: Getting from Here to There 87 Divide and Conquer: Breaking Your Project into Manageable Chunks 88 Thinking in detail 88 Identifying necessary project work with a work breakdown structure 90 Dealing with special situations 98 Creating and Displaying Your Work Breakdown Structure 101 Considering different schemes to create your WBS hierarchy 102 Using one of two approaches to develop your WBS 103 Categorizing your project's work 104 Labeling your WBS entries 106 Displaying your WBS in different formats 107 Improving the quality of your WBS 110 Using templates 111 Identifying Risks While Detailing Your Work 112 Documenting What You Need to Know about Your Planned Project Work 114 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 115 Part 2: Planning Time: Determining When and How Much 117 Chapter 6: You Want This Project Done When? 119 Picture This: Illustrating a Work Plan with a Network Diagram 120 Defining a network diagram's elements 120 Drawing a network diagram 122 Analyzing a Network Diagram 123 Reading a network diagram 123 Interpreting a network diagram 125 Working with Your Project's Network Diagram 130 Determining precedence 130 Using a network diagram to analyze a simple example 133 Developing Your Project's Schedule 138 Taking the first steps 139 Avoiding the pitfall of backing in to your schedule 140 Meeting an established time constraint 141 Applying different strategies to arrive at your picnic in less time 141 Estimating Activity Duration 149 Determining the underlying factors 149 Considering resource characteristics 150 Finding sources of supporting information 150 Improving activity duration estimates 151 Displaying Your Project's Schedule 152 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 156 Chapter 7: Establishing Whom You Need, How Much of Their Time, and When 157 Getting the Information You Need to Match People to Tasks 158 Deciding what skills and knowledge team members must have 159 Representing team members' skills, knowledge, and interests in a skills matrix 163 Estimating Needed Commitment 165 Using a human resources matrix 165 Identifying needed personnel in a human resources matrix 167 Estimating required work effort 168 Factoring productivity, efficiency, and availability into work-effort estimates 169 Reflecting efficiency when you use historical data 170 Accounting for efficiency in personal work-effort estimates 171 Ensuring Your Project Team Members Can Meet Their Resource Commitments 173 Planning your initial allocations 174 Resolving potential resource overloads 176 Coordinating assignments across multiple projects 179 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 180 Chapter 8: Planning for Other Resources and Developing the Budget 183 Determining Non-Personnel Resource Needs 184 Making Sense of the Dollars: Project Costs and Budgets 186 Looking at different types of project costs 186 Recognizing the three stages of a project budget 188 Refining your budget as you move through your project's phases 189 Determining project costs for a detailed budget estimate 191 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 195 Chapter 9: Venturing into the Unknown: Dealing with Risk 197 Defining Risk and Risk Management 198 Focusing on Risk Factors and Risks 199 Recognizing risk factors 200 Identifying risks 204 Assessing Risks: Probability and Consequences 205 Gauging the likelihood of a risk 205 Estimating the extent of the consequences 208 Getting Everything under Control: Managing Risk 210 Choosing the risks you want to manage 211 Developing a risk-management strategy 212 Communicating about risks 213 Preparing a Risk-Management Plan 214 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 216 Part 3: Group Work: Putting Your Team Together 217 Chapter 10: Aligning the Key Players for Your Project 219 Defining Three Organizational Environments 220 The functional structure 220 The projectized structure 222 The matrix structure 224 Recognizing the Key Players in a Matrix Environment 227 The project manager 228 Project team members 229 Functional managers 229 The project owner 230 The project sponsor 230 Upper management 231 Working Successfully in a Matrix Environment 232 Creating and continually reinforcing a team identity 232 Getting team-member commitment 233 Eliciting support from other people in the environment 233 Heading off common problems before they arise 234 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 235 Chapter 11: Defining Team Members' Roles and Responsibilities 237 Outlining the Key Roles 238 Distinguishing authority, responsibility, and accountability 238 Understanding the difference between authority and responsibility 239 Making Project Assignments 239 Delving into delegation 239 Sharing responsibility 244 Holding people accountable - even when they don't report to you 246 Picture This: Depicting Roles with a Responsibility Assignment Matrix 250 Introducing the elements of a RAM 250 Reading a RAM 252 Developing a RAM 254 Ensuring your RAM is accurate 255 Dealing with Micromanagement 257 Realizing why a person micromanages 257 Gaining a micromanager's trust 258 Working well with a micromanager 259 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 259 Chapter 12: Starting Your Project Team Off on the Right Foot 261 Finalizing Your Project's Participants 262 Are you in? Confirming your team members' participation 262 Assuring that others are on board 264 Filling in the blanks 265 Developing Your Team 266 Reviewing the approved project plan 267 Developing team and individual goals 268 Specifying team-member roles 268 Defining your team's operating processes 269 Supporting the development of team-member relationships 270 Resolving conflicts 270 All together now: Helping your team become a smooth-functioning unit 273 Laying the Groundwork for Controlling Your Project 275 Selecting and preparing your tracking systems 275 Establishing schedules for reports and meetings 276 Setting your project's baseline 277 Hear Ye, Hear Ye! Announcing Your Project 277 Setting the Stage for Your Post-Project Evaluation 278 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 279 Part 4: Steering the Ship: Managing Your Project to Success 281 Chapter 13: Tracking Progress and Maintaining Control 283 Holding On to the Reins: Project Control 284 Establishing Project Management Information Systems 285 The clock's ticking: Monitoring schedule performance 286 All in a day's work: Monitoring work effort 292 Follow the money: Monitoring expenditures 297 Putting Your Control Process into Action 301 Heading off problems before they occur 301 Formalizing your control process 302 Identifying possible causes of delays and variances 303 Identifying possible corrective actions 304 Getting back on track: Rebaselining 305 Reacting Responsibly When Changes Are Requested 305 Responding to change requests 306 Creeping away from scope creep 307 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 308 Chapter 14: Keeping Everyone Informed 309 I Said What I Meant and I Meant What I Said: Successful Communication Basics 310 Breaking down the communication process 311 Distinguishing one-way and two-way communication 311 Can you hear me? Listening actively 312 Choosing the Appropriate Medium for Project Communication 314 Just the facts: Written reports 315 Move it along: Meetings that work 317 Preparing a Written Project-Progress Report 319 Making a list (of names) and checking it twice 319 Knowing what's hot (and what's not) in your report 320 Earning a Pulitzer, or at least writing an interesting report 322 Holding Key Project Meetings 325 Regularly scheduled team meetings 325 Ad hoc team meetings 326 Upper-management progress reviews 326 Preparing a Project Communications Management Plan 327 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 328 Chapter 15: Encouraging Peak Performance by Providing Effective Leadership 331 Exploring the Differences between Leadership and Management 332 Recognizing the Traits People Look for in a Leader 333 Developing Personal Power and Influence 334 Understanding why people do what you ask 335 Establishing the bases of your power 336 You Can Do It! Creating and Sustaining Team Member Motivation 338 Increasing commitment by clarifying your project's benefits 339 Encouraging persistence by demonstrating project feasibility 340 Letting people know how they're doing 341 Providing rewards for work well done 342 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 343 Chapter 16: Bringing Your Project to Closure 345 Staying the Course to Completion 346 Planning ahead for your project's closure 347 Updating your initial closure plans when you're ready to wind down the project 348 Charging up your team for the sprint to the finish line 348 Handling Administrative Issues 349 Providing a Smooth Transition for Team Members 349 Surveying the Results: The Post-Project Evaluation 352 Preparing for the evaluation throughout the project 352 Setting the stage for the evaluation meeting 353 Conducting the evaluation meeting 355 Following up on the evaluation 356 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 357 Part 5: Taking Your Project Management to the Next Level 359 Chapter 17: Using Newer Methods and Resources to Enhance Your Project Management 361 Taking a Look at the Agile Approach to Project Management 362 Understanding what drives the Agile approach 362 Taking a look at the elements of Agile when implemented through Scrum 364 Comparing the Agile and traditional (Waterfall) approaches 365 Using Computer Software Effectively 366 Looking at your software options 367 Helping your software perform at its best 372 Introducing project-management software into your organization 373 Using Social Media to Enhance Project Management 374 Defining social media 374 Exploring how social media can support your project planning and performance 376 Using social media to support your project communications 377 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 378 Chapter 18: Monitoring Project Performance with Earned Value Management 381 Defining Earned Value Management 382 Getting to know EVM terms and formulas 382 Looking at a simple example 386 Determining the reasons for observed variances 388 The How-To: Applying Earned Value Management to Your Project 389 Determining a Task's Earned Value 392 Relating This Chapter to the PMP Exam and PMBOK 6 396 Part 6: The Part of Tens 397 Chapter 19: Ten Questions to Ask Yourself as You Plan Your Project 399 What's the Purpose of Your Project? 399 Whom Do You Need to Involve? 400 What Results Will You Produce? 400 What Constraints Must You Satisfy? 400 What Assumptions Are You Making? 401 What Work Has to Be Done? 401 When Does Each Activity Start and End? 402 Who Will Perform the Project Work? 402 What Other Resources Do You Need? 403 What Can Go Wrong? 403 Chapter 20: Ten Tips for Being a Better Project Manager 405 Be a "Why" Person 405 Be a "Can Do" Person 406 Think about the Big Picture 406 Think in Detail 406 Assume Cautiously 406 View People as Allies, Not Adversaries 407 Say What You Mean and Mean What You Say 407 Respect Other People 407 Acknowledge Good Performance 407 Be a Manager and a Leader 408 Appendix: Combining the Techniques into Smooth-Flowing Processes 409 Index 413
Stanley E. Portny, PMP (R), is an internationally recognized expert in project management and project leadership. During the past 30 years, he has provided training and consultation to more than 150 public and private organizations. He is a Project Management Institute certified Project Management Professional (PMP (R)).