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Principles of Geology

In 1830-33, Charles Lyell laid the foundations of evolutionary biology with Principles of Geology, a pioneering book that Charles Darwin took with him on the Beagle. Volume 2 (1832) focuses on plants and animals, and consists of 17 chapters, a comprehensive index and woodcut illustrations of various natural habitats Lyell had observed. The author takes issue with the French biologist Lamarck's theory of the transmutation of species, though Darwin in fact later praised other aspects of Lamarck's work. Lyell examines the connections between the Earth's changing crust and the natural history of many species of birds, insects, mammals and fish. He discusses how wild species physically adapt over time to domestication, the diffusion of plants throughout their specific habitats, geographical distributions of certain types of animals, migratory pattern adaptation due to climate change, hybrid plants, species extinction and how organic deposits, such as moss, on emerging land affect species adaptation.
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Table of Contents

Preface; 1. Changes of the organic world; 2. Recapitulation of the arguments; 3. Variability of a species; 4. Consideration of the question whether species have a real existence; 5. Laws which regulate the geographical distribution of species; 6. Geographical distribution of animals; 7. Geographical distribution and migration of fish; 8. Theories respecting the original introduction of species; 9. The circumstances which constitute the stations of animals are changeable; 10. Influence of organic causes in changing the habitations of species; 11. Theory of the successive extinction of species; 12. Effects produced by the powers of vitality; 13. Effects produced by the action of animals and vegetable life; 14. Imbedding of organic remains in alluvium and the ruins caused by landslips; 15. Imbedding of organic remains in subaqueous deposits; 16. Imbedding of the remains of man and his works in subaqueous strata; 17. Imbedding of aquatic species in subaqueous strata; 18. Formation of coral reefs.

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