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Prime Numbers and Computer Methods for Factorization

In the modern age of almost universal computer usage, practically every individual in a technologically developed society has routine access to the most up-to-date cryptographic technology that exists, the so-called RSA public-key cryptosystem. A major component of this system is the factorization of large numbers into their primes. Thus an ancient number-theory concept now plays a crucial role in communication among millions of people who may have little or no knowledge of even elementary mathematics. The independent structure of each chapter of the book makes it highly readable for a wide variety of mathematicians, students of applied number theory, and others interested in both study and research in number theory and cryptography.
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Table of Contents

1. The Number of Primes Below a Given Limit.- What Is a Prime Number?.- The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.- Which Numbers Are Primes? The Sieve of Eratosthenes.- General Remarks Concerning Computer Programs.- A Sieve Program.- Compact Prime Tables.- Hexadecimal Compact Prime Tables.- Difference Between Consecutive Primes.- The Number of Primes Below x.- Meissel's Formula.- Evaluation of Pk(x, a).- Lehmer's Formula.- Computations.- A Computation Using Meissel's Formula.- A Computation Using Lehmer's Formula.- A Computer Program Using Lehmer's Formula.- Mapes' Method.- Deduction of Formulas.- A Worked Example.- Mapes' Algorithm.- Programming Mapes' Algorithm.- Recent Developments.- Results.- Computational Complexity.- Comparison Between the Methods Discussed.- 2. The Primes Viewed at Large.- No Polynomial Can Produce Only Primes.- Formulas Yielding All Primes.- The Distribution of Primes Viewed at Large. Euclid's Theorem.- The Formulas of Gauss and Legendre for ?(x). The Prime Number Theorem.- The Chebyshev Function ?(x).- The Riemann Zeta-function.- The Zeros of the Zeta-function.- Conversion From f(x) Back to ?(x).- The Riemann Prime Number Formula.- The Sign of li x ? ?(x).- The Influence of the Complex Zeros of ?(s) on ?(x).- The Remainder Term in the Prime Number Theorem.- Effective Inequalities for ?(x), pn, and ?(x).- The Number of Primes in Arithmetic Progressions.- 3. Subtleties in the Distribution of Primes.- The Distribution of Primes in Short Intervals.- Twins and Some Other Constellations of Primes.- Admissible Constellations of Primes.- The Hardy-Littlewood Constants.- The Prime k-Tuples Conjecture.- Theoretical Evidence in Favour of the Prime k-Tuples Conjecture.- Numerical Evidence in Favour of the Prime k-Tuples Conjecture.- The Second Hardy-Littlewood Conjecture.- The Midpoint Sieve.- Modification of the Midpoint Sieve.- Construction of Superdense Admissible Constellations.- Some Dense Clusters of Primes.- The Distribution of Primes Between the Two Series 4n + 1 and 4n + 3.- Graph of the Function ?4,3(x) ? ?4,1(x).- The Negative Regions.- The Negative Blocks.- Large Gaps Between Consecutive Primes.- The Cramer Conjecture.- 4. The Recognition of Primes.- Tests of Primality and of Compositeness.- Factorization Methods as Tests of Compositeness.- Fermat's Theorem as Compositeness Test.- Fermat's Theorem as Primality Test.- Pseudoprimes and Probable Primes.- A Computer Program for Fermat's Test.- The Labor Involved in a Fermat Test.- Carmichael Numbers.- Euler Pseudoprimes.- Strong Pseudoprimes and a Primality Test.- A Computer Program for Strong Pseudoprime Tests.- Counts of Pseudoprimes and Carmichael Numbers.- Rigorous Primality Proofs.- Lehmer's Converse of Fermat's Theorem.- Formal Proof of Theorem 4.3.- Ad Hoc Search for a Primitive Root.- The Use of Several Bases.- Fermat Numbers and Pepin's Theorem.- Cofactors of Fermat Numbers.- Generalized Fermat Numbers.- A Relaxed Converse of Fermat's Theorem.- Proth's Theorem.- Tests of Compositeness for Numbers of the form N = h * 2n +/- k.- An Alternative Approach.- Certificates of Primality.- Primality Tests of Lucasian Type.- Lucas Sequences.- The Fibonacci Numbers.- Large Subscripts.- An Alternative Deduction.- Divisibility Properties of the Numbers Un.- Primality Proofs by Aid of Lucas Sequences.- Lucas Tests for Mersenne Numbers.- A Relaxation of Theorem 4.8.- Pocklington's Theorem.- Lehmer-Pocklington's Theorem.- Pocklington-Type Theorems for Lucas Sequences.- Primality Tests for Integers of the form N = h * 2n ? 1, when 3?h.- Primality Tests for N = h * 2n ? 1, when 3?h.- The Combined N ? 1 and N + 1 Test.- Lucas Pseudoprimes.- Modern Primality Proofs.- The Jacobi Sum Primality Test.- Three Lemmas.- Lenstra's Theorem.- The Sets P and Q.- Running Time for the APRCL Test.- Elliptic Curve Primality Proving, ECPP.- The Goldwasser-Kilian Test.- Atkin's Test.- 5. Classical Methods of Factorization.- When Do We Attempt Factorization?.- Trial Division.- A Computer Implementation of Trial Division.- Euclid's Algorithm as an Aid to Factorization.- Fermat's Factoring Method.- Legendre's Congruence.- Euler's Factoring Method.- Gauss' Factoring Method.- Legendre's Factoring Method.- The Number of Prime Factors of Large Numbers.- How Does a Typical Factorization Look?.- The Erd?s-Kac Theorem.- The Distribution of Prime Factors of Various Sizes.- Dickman's Version of Theorem 5.4.- A More Detailed Theory.- The Size of the kth Largest Prime Factor of N.- Smooth Integers.- Searching for Factors of Certain Forms.- Legendre's Theorem for the Factors of N = an +/- bn.- Adaptation to Search for Factors of the Form p = 2kn + 1.- Adaptation of Trial Division.- Adaptation of Fermat's Factoring Method.- Adaptation of Euclid's Algorithm as an Aid to Factorization.- 6. Modem Factorization Methods.- Choice of Method.- Pollard's (p ? 1)-Method.- Phase 2 of the (p ? 1)-Method.- The (p + 1)-Method.- Pollard's rho Method.- A Computer Program for Pollard's rho Method.- An Algebraic Description of Pollard's rho Method.- Brent's Modification of Pollard's rho Method.- The Pollard-Brent Method for p = 2kn + 1.- Shanks' Factoring Method SQUFOF.- A Computer Program for SQUFOF.- Comparison Between Pollard's rho Method and SQUFOF.- Morrison and Brillhart's Continued Fraction Method CFRAC.- The Factor Base.- An Example of a Factorization with CFRAC.- Further Details of CFRAC.- The Early Abort Strategy.- Results Achieved with CFRAC.- Running Time Analysis of CFRAC.- The Quadratic Sieve, QS.- Smallest Solutions to Q(x) ? 0 mod p.- Special Factors.- Results Achieved with QS.- The Multiple Polynomial Quadratic Sieve, MPQS.- Results Achieved with MPQS.- Running Time Analysis of QS and MPQS.- The Schnorr-Lenstra Method.- Two Categories of Factorization Methods.- Lenstra's Elliptic Curve Method, ECM.- Phase 2 of ECM.- The Choice of A, B, and P1.- Running Times of ECM.- Recent Results Achieved with ECM.- The Number Field Sieve, NFS.- Factoring Both in Z and in Z(z).- A Numerical Example.- The General Number Field Sieve, GNFS.- Running Times of NFS and GNFS.- Results Achieved with NFS. Factorization of F9.- Strategies in Factoring.- How Fast Can a Factorization Algorithm Be?.- 7. Prime Numbers and Cryptography.- Practical Secrecy.- Keys in Cryptography.- Arithmetical Formulation.- RSA Cryptosystems.- How to Find the Recovery Exponent.- A Worked Example.- Selecting Keys.- Finding Suitable Primes.- The Fixed Points of an RSA System.- How Safe is an RSA Cryptosystem?.- Superior Factorization.- Appendix 1. Basic Concepts in Higher Algebra.- Modules.- Euclid's Algorithm.- The Labor Involved in Euclid's Algorithm.- A Definition Taken from the Theory of Algorithms.- A Computer Program for Euclid's Algorithm.- Reducing the Labor.- Binary Form of Euclid's Algorithm.- Groups.- Lagrange's Theorem. Cosets.- Abstract Groups. Isomorphic Groups.- The Direct Product of Two Given Groups.- Cyclic Groups.- Rings.- Zero Divisors.- Fields.- Mappings. Isomorphisms and Homomorphisms.- Group Characters.- The Conjugate or Inverse Character.- Homomorphisms and Group Characters.- Appendix 2. Basic Concepts in Higher Arithmetic.- Divisors. Common Divisors.- The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.- Congruences.- Linear Congruences.- Linear Congruences and Euclid's Algorithm.- Systems of Linear Congruences.- Carmichael's Function.- Carmichael's Theorem.- Appendix 3. Quadratic Residues.- Legendre's Symbol.- Arithmetic Rules for Residues and Non-Residues.- The Law of Quadratic Reciprocity.- Jacobi's Symbol.- Appendix 4. The Arithmetic of Quadratic Fields.- Appendix 5. Higher Algebraic Number Fields.- Algebraic Numbers.- Appendix 6. Algebraic Factors.- Factorization of Polynomials.- The Cyclotomic Polynomials.- Aurifeuillian Factorizations.- Factorization Formulas.- The Algebraic Structure of Aurifeuillian Numbers.- Appendix 7. Elliptic Curves.- Cubics.- Rational Points on Rational Cubics.- Homogeneous Coordinates.- Elliptic Curves.- Rational Points on Elliptic Curves.- Appendix 8. Continued Fractions.- What Is a Continued Fraction?.- Regular Continued Fractions. Expansions.- Evaluating a Continued Fraction.- Continued Fractions as Approximations.- Euclid's Algorithm and Continued Fractions.- Linear Diophantine Equations and Continued Fractions.- A Computer Program.- Continued Fraction Expansions of Square Roots.- Proof of Periodicity.- The Maximal Period-Length.- Short Periods.- Continued Fractions and Quadratic Residues.- Appendix 9. Multiple-Precision Arithmetic.- Various Objectives for a Multiple-Precision Package.- How to Store Multi-Precise Integers.- Addition and Subtraction of Multi-Precise Integers.- Reduction in Length of Multi-Precise Integers.- Multiplication of Multi-Precise Integers.- Division of Multi-Precise Integers.- Input and Output of Multi-Precise Integers.- A Complete Package for Multiple-Precision Arithmetic.- A Computer Program for Pollard's rho Method.- Appendix 10. Fast Multiplication of Large Integers.- The Ordinary Multiplication Algorithm.- Double Length Multiplication.- Recursive Use of Double Length Multiplication Formula.- A Recursive Procedure for Squaring Large Integers.- Fractal Structure of Recursive Squaring.- Large Mersenne Primes.- Appendix 11. The Stieltjes Integral.- Functions With Jump Discontinuities.- The Riemann Integral.- Definition of the Stieltjes Integral.- Rules of Integration for Stieltjes Integrals.- Integration by Parts of Stieltjes Integrals.- The Mean Value Theorem.- Applications.- Tables. For Contents.- List of Textbooks.

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"Here is an outstanding technical monograph on recursive number theory and its numerous automated techniques. It successfully passes a critical milestone not allowed to many books, viz., a second edition. Many good things have happened to computational number theory during the ten years since the first edition appeared and the author includes their highlights in great depth. Several major sections have been rewritten and totally new sections have been added. The new material includes advances on applications of the elliptic curve method, uses of the number field sieve, and two new appendices on the basics of higher algebraic number fields and elliptic curves. Further, the table of prime factors of Fermat numbers has been significantly up-dated. ...Several other tables have been added so as to provide data to look for large prime factors of certain 'generalized' Fermat numbers, while several other tables on special numbers were simply deleted in the second edition. Still one can make several perplexing assertions or challenges: (1) prove that F\sb 5, F\sb 6, F\sb 7, F\sb 8 are the only four consecutive Fermat numbers which are bi-composite; (2) Show that F\sb{14} is bi- composite. (This accounts for the difficulty in finding a prime factor for it.) (3) What is the smallest Fermat quadri-composite?; and (4) Does there exist a Fermat number with an arbitrarily prescribed number of prime factors? All in all, this handy volume continues to be an attractive combination of number-theoretic precision, practicality, and theory with a rich blend of computer science." -Zentralblatt Math

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