SECTION I: FOUNDATIONS FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH Chapter 1: Science, Society, and Research Related to Crime, Criminology, and Social Control Reasoning About the Social World The Social Science Approach Criminal Justice and Criminological Research in Practice Alternative Research Orientations More on the Role of Values in Research Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Highlighting a Few Specific Types of Research Methods Strengths and Limitations of Social Research A Comment on Research in a Diverse Society Conclusion Chapter 2: The Process and Problems of Research Related to Crime and Criminology Identifying a Research Question Social Research Foundations The Role of Theory Social Research Strategies Social Research Standards Conclusion Chapter 3: Ethical Guidelines for Research Historical Background Ethical Principles Institutional Review Board Research Involving Special Populations: Prisoners and Children Conclusion SECTION II: FUNDAMENTALS OF RESEARCH Chapter 4: Conceptualization and Measurement Concepts Variables and Levels of Measurement Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure? A Comment on Measurement in a Diverse Society Conclusion Chapter 5: Sampling Sample Planning Sampling Methods Sampling Distributions Conclusion Chapter 6: Causation and Research Design Causal Explanations Criteria and Cautions for Nomothetic Causal Explanations Research Designs and Causality Units of Analysis and Errors in Causal Reasoning Conclusion SECTION III: RESEARCH DESIGNS Chapter 7: Experimental Designs History of Experiments True Experiments Quasi-Experiments Validity in Experiments Factorial Survey Design Ethical Issues in Experimental Research Conclusion Chapter 8: Survey Research Survey Research in the Social Sciences Designing Questionnaires Writing Survey Questions Organization of the Questionnaire The Cover Letter Survey Designs Errors in Survey Research Ethical Issues in Survey Research Conclusion Chapter 9: Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, and Listening Fundamentals of Qualitative Methods Participant Observation Systematic Observation Intensive Interviewing Focus Groups Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Conclusion Chapter 10: Analyzing Content: Research Using Secondary, Historical, and Comparative Data, and Content Analysis Analyzing Secondary Data Historical and Comparative Methods Comparative Research Content Analysis Methodological Issues When Using Secondary Data Ethical Issues When Analyzing Available Data and Content Conclusion Chapter 11: Social Network Analysis, Crime Mapping, and Big Data Social Network Analysis Crime Mapping Big Data Ethical Issues When Using Big Data Ethical Issues When Using Big Data Chapter 12: Evaluation and Policy Analysis A Brief History of Evaluation Research Evaluation Basics Questions for Evaluation Research Design Decisions Evaluation in Action Quasi-Experimental Designs in Evaluation Research Nonexperimental Designs Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Policy Research: Increasing Demand for Evidence-Based Policy Basic Science or Applied Research Ethics in Evaluation Conclusion Chapter 13: Mixing and Comparing Methods What Are Mixed Methods? Strengths and Limitations of Mixed Methods Comparing Results Across Studies Ethics and Mixed Methods Conclusion SECTION IV: AFTER THE DATA ARE COLLECTED Chapter 14: Analyzing Quantitative Data Introducing Statistics Preparing Data for Analysis Displaying Univariate Distributions Summarizing Univariate Distributions Cross-Tabulating Variables Regression and Correlation Conclusion Chapter 15: Analyzing Qualitative Data Features of Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative Compared With Quantitave Data Analysis Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics in Qualitative Data Analysis Conclusion Chapter 16: Summarizing and Reporting Research Research Report Goals Writing Is Not Easy! Research Report Types Displaying Research Special Considerations for Reporting Qualitative or Mixed-Methods Research Ethics, Politics, and Reporting Research Plagiarism Conclusion Appendix A: Questions to Ask About a Research Article Appendix B: How to Read a Research Article Appendix C: How to Use a Statistical Package: IBM SPSS Statistics Appendix D: How to Use a Data Spreadsheet: Excel Appendix E: Data Sets
Ronet Bachman, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware. She is coauthor of Statistical Methods for Crime and Criminal Justice, coauthor of The Practice of Research in Criminology and Criminal Justice, co-editor of Explaining Crime and Criminology: Essays in Contemporary Criminal Theory. In addition, she is author of Death and Violence on the Reservation; coauthor of Stress, Culture, and Aggression in the United States; and coauthor of Murder American Style as well as numerous articles and papers that examine the epidemiology and etiology of violence, with a particular emphasis on women, the elderly, and minority populations. Her most recent federally funded research examines the desistance trajectories of drug-involved offenders 10 years after release from prison using a mixed-method design. Russell K. Schutt, PhD, is a professor and the chair of sociology at the University of Massachusetts, Boston, and a lecturer on sociology in the Department of Psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School (Massachusetts Mental Health Center). He completed his BA, MA, and PhD (1977) at the University of Illinois at Chicago and a postdoctoral fellowship in the Sociology of Social Control Training Program at Yale University (1977-1979). His other books include Investigating the Social World: The Process and Practice of Research and Fundamentals of Social Work Research (with Ray Engel), Making Sense of the Social World (with Dan Chambliss), and Research Methods in Psychology (with Paul G. Nestor)-all with SAGE Publications, as well as Homelessness, Housing, and Mental Illness (Harvard University Press) and Social Neuroscience: Brain, Mind, and Society (coedited with Larry J. Seidman and Matcheri S. Keshavan, also Harvard University Press). Most of his peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters focus on the effect of social context on cognition, satisfaction, functioning, and recidivism, the orientations of service recipients and of service and criminal justice personnel, and the organization of health and social services. He is currently a coinvestigator for a randomized trial of peer support for homeless dually diagnosed veterans, funded by the Veterans Administration.