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Plant Physiology


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Table of Contents

1 Setting the Aims in Physiology.- Concepts of Physiology.- Heterogeneity of Physiology.- Limitations of Reductionism.- Laws in Biology.- Universal Laws in Physiology.- System Theory.- Important Concepts.- Biochemistry and Physiology.- Further Reading.- 2 Theoretical Basis of Physiology.- Principles of Scientific Studies.- Reference Units.- The Principle of Causality in Physiology.- Single-Factor Analysis.- Multifactor Analysis.- The Problem of Complexity.- Formulation of Laws.- Characters and Variability.- Presentation of Data.- The Problem of Extrapolation.- Further Reading.- 3 The Cell as a Morphological System.- The Meristematic Plant Cell.- The Mature Plant Cell.- The Woody Plant Cell.- Further Reading.- 4 The Cell as an Energetic System.- The First Law of Thermodynamics.- The Second Law of Thermodynamics.- The Cell as an Open System, Dynamic Equilibrium.- Chemical Potential.- Chemical Potential of Water.- Concept of Water Potential in the Water Relations of Cells.- Chemical Potential of Ions.- Membrane Potential.- Energetics of Biochemical Reactions.- Phosphate Transfer and Phosphorylation Potential.- Redox Systems and Redox Potential.- Further Reading.- 5 The Cell as a Metabolic System.- Biological Catalysis.- Metabolic Compartmentation of the Cell.- Transport Mechanisms in Biomembranes.- ATP Synthesis by Energy-Transforming Biomembranes.- Uptake of Materials by the Cell.- Principles of Metabolic Regulation.- Further Reading.- 6 The Cell as a Dividing System.- Regulation of the Rate of Mitosis.- Determination of the Division Plane.- Cell Cycle and Cell Differentiation.- Further Reading.- 7 The Cell as a Polar System.- Significance of Cell Polarity.- Induction of Polarity by Light.- Induction of Polarity by Polarised Light.- Polarity and the Bioelectrical Field.- Polarity and Signalling Substances.- Further Reading.- 8 The Cell as a Growing System.- Biophysical Basis of Cell Growth.- Growth and Cell-Wall Structure.- Extension Growth of Multicellular Organs.- Regulation of Extension Growth.- Further Reading.- 9 The Cell as an Oscillatory System.- The Original Observation: Daily Leaf Movements of Bean Plants.- Further Selected Phenomena Illustrating Circadian Rhythms.- Selected Experiments to Analyse Endogenous Rhythms.- Endogenous Rhythm as a System Characteristic.- Further Reading.- 10 The Cell as a Gene-Physiological System.- Chromatin and Chromosomes.- RNA of the Cell.- Protein Synthesis.- Specific Inhibitors.- Folding and Assembly of Proteins.- Sorting Proteins.- Regulation of Gene Expression.- Further Reading.- 11 Intracellular Morphogenesis.- Intracellular Communication.- Morphogenesis of Mitochondria.- Morphogenesis of Plastids.- Morphogenesis of Peroxisomes (Microbodies).- Further Reading.- 12 Photosynthesis as a Chloroplast Function.- Photosynthesis as Energy Conversion.- Energy Conversion in the Chloroplast.- Pigment Systems of Red and Blue-Green Algae.- Photosynthetic Electron Transport.- Protection Mechanisms Against Photo-Oxidative Destruction of the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- Mechanism of Photophosphorylation.- Biochemical Processes.- Anoxygenic Photosynthesis of Phototrophic Bacteria.- Further Reading.- 13 Respiratory Metabolism.- Catabolic Energy Production.- Respiratory Metabolism of Carbohydrates.- Photorespiration.- Mobilisation of Storage Material in Storage Tissues.- Regulation of Respiratory Gas Exchange.- Regulatory Interaction Between Synthesis and Breakdown of Carbohydrates.- Further Reading.- 14 The Leaf as a Photosynthetic System.- Measurement of the Rate of Photosynthesis.- Gross and Net Photosynthesis.- Limiting Factors of Net Photosynthesis.- Ability of Leaves to Adapt Photosynthetically.- Temperature Dependence of Net Photosynthesis.- Influence of Oxygen on Net Photosynthesis.- Regulation of CO2 Exchange by Stomata.- Further Reading.- 15 C4 Plants and CAM Plants.- C4 Syndrome.- C4 Dicarboxylate Cycle.- Ecological Aspects of the C4 Syndrome.- CAM, an Alternative to C4 Photosynthesis.- Isotope Discrimination During CO2 Fixation.- Further Reading.- 16 Metabolism of Water and Inorganic Ions.- Water.- Mineral Nutrition of Plants.- Essential Microelements.- Function of Nutrient Elements in Metabolism.- Salt Excretion in Halophytes.- Sequestration of Heavy Metals by Phytochelatin.- Further Reading.- 17 Ecological Cycles of Materials and Energy.- Carbon and Oxygen Cycles.- Nitrogen Cycle.- Energy Flux.- Further Reading.- 18 Biosynthetic Metabolism.- Primary and Secondary Metabolism.- Shikimate Pathway.- Biogenesis of Chlorophyll.- Further Reading.- 19 Physiology of Development.- Basic Aspects.- Growth.- Differentiation.- Pattern Formation and Morphogenesis.- Tumour Formation in Plants.- Morphogenesis of Acetabularia.- Further Reading.- 20 Physiology of Sexuality.- Five Case Studies of Gametogenesis and the Effects of Pheromones in Lower Plants.- Fertilisation in Flowering Plants.- Maternal and Paternal Inheritance.- Male Sterility.- Further Reading.- 21 Photomorphogenesis.- Action Spectra.- Pigments.- Phytochrome.- Mode of Action of Phytochrome in Photomorphogenesis.- Four Case Studies on the Effects of Phytochrome.- Cooperation Between Photosensors.- A Positive UV-B Effect: Synthesis of Flavone Glycosides in Cell Suspension Cultures.- Photomorphogenesis of Fungi.- Further Reading.- 22 Development of Chloroplasts.- Regulation of Chlorophyll Synthesis.- Formation of Holocomplexes.- Regulation of Matrix Enzymes.- The Plastid Factor.- Formation of the Apparatus of Nitrate Assimilation During the Development of Chloroplasts.- Further Reading.- 23 Physiology of Hormone Action.- Overview of the Structure and Function of Phytohormones.- Six Case Studies of the Physiology of Hormone Action.- Further Reading.- 24 Ripening and Germination of Reproductive and Distributive Organs.- Development of the Ripe Seed.- Germination of Ripened Seeds.- Regulation of Gene Expression During Embryo Development.- Regulation of Fruit Development by the Seed.- Bud Dormancy and Bud Germination.- Further Reading.- 25 Flower Formation and Photo- and Thermoperiodism.- Flower Induction and Morphogenesis.- Flower Formation and Florigen.- Photoperiodism.- Grafting Experiments and Florigen.- Flower Formation and Gibberellin.- Phytochrome and Photoperiodism.- Photoperiodism and Circadian Rhythm.- Photoperiodic Phenomena Independent of Flower Formation.- Significance of Photoperiodism.- Thermoperiodism.- Vernalisation.- Further Reading.- 26 Physiology of Senescence.- Monocarpic Plants.- Aging of Leaves in Perennial Plants.- Further Reading.- 27 Physiology of Regeneration and Transplantation.- Results from Organ Cultures.- A Technical Note: Tissue Cultures.- Proof of the Omnipotence of Specialised Cells.- Parasexual Hybridisation.- Wound Healing.- Cooperation of Several Factors During Regeneration.- Regeneration Experiments with Flower Formation.- Intracellular Regeneration.- Transplantation.- Chimaeras.- Further Reading.- 28 Effects of Ionising Radiation.- Exciting and Ionising Radiation.- Types of Ionising Radiation.- Process of Ionisation.- Some Thoughts on the Target Theory.- Effect of Ionising Radiation on Cell Components.- Repair of Radiation Damage in DNA.- Effect of Ionising Radiation on Higher Level Organisation in Cells.- Further Reading.- 29 Physiology of Xylem Transport.- The Transport Pathway from Perirhizal Zone into Root Vessels.- Root System and Root Hairs.- Two Plant Transport Systems.- Nitrogen in the Xylem Sap.- Transpiration and Ion Supply.- Water Balance.- Pathways.- Classical Experiments.- Transpiration.- Analogue Model for Water Transport in a Plant.- Distribution of Water Potential in a Tree.- Guttation and Root Pressure.- Further Reading.- 30 Physiology of Phloem Transport.- Basic Aspects.- Pathways.- Transport Molecules.- Mechanism of Sieve Tube Transport.- Further Reading.- 31 Physiology of Movement.- Free Movement of Plants Between Sites.- Phototropism.- Gravitropism.- Further Processes of Movement.- Further Reading.- 32 Physiology of Stress Resistance.- Water Stress.- Temperature Stress.- Light and UV Stress.- Biogenic Stress (Plant Diseases).- Further Reading.- 33 Physiology of Crop Production.- Basic Aspects.- Formation of Storage Material.- Production Factors.- Principles of Yield Production.- Optimum of a Production Factor: Nitrogen.- Suppression of Yield Antagonists: Herbicides.- Synthetic Growth Retardants.- Improvement of Hereditary Factors.- Gene Technology.- Case Study: Antibody Production in Plants.- Further Reading.- Appendix: Physical Quantities, Units, Conversion Factors and Constants.- References.


"...offers new and exciting material as well as novel approaches towards presenting the information to the readers." Plant Science Bulletin
"For lecturers who have been looking for a solid textbook which revolves around plant development, this textbook is excellent. I give it high marks compared to the other books already on the market." Phycology Newsletter

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