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Philosophy of Technology


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Table of Contents

Source Acknowledgments ix Introduction to the Second Edition xiii Part I The Historical Background 1 Introduction 3 1 On Dialectic and ?Techne?? 9 Plato 2 On ?Techne?? and ?Episte?me?? 19 Aristotle 3 The Greek Concepts of ?Nature? and ?Technique? 25 Wolfgang Schadewaldt 4 On the Idols, the Scientific Study of Nature, and the Reformation of Education 33 Francis Bacon 5 Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View 47 Immanuel Kant 6 The Nature and Importance of the Positive Philosophy 54 Auguste Comte 7 On the Sciences and Arts 68 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 8 Capitalism and the Modern Labor Process 74 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Part II Philosophy, Modern Science, and Technology 89 Positivist and Postpositivist Philosophies of Science 91 9 The Scientific Conception of the World: The Vienna Circle 101 Rudolf Carnap, Hans Hahn, and Otto Neurath 10 Paradigms and Anomalies in Science 111 Thomas Kuhn 11 Experimentation and Scientific Realism 121 Ian Hacking 12 Hermeneutical Philosophy and Pragmatism: A Philosophy of Science 131 Patrick A. Heelan and Jay Schulkin 13 What are Cultural Studies of Science? 147 Joseph Rouse 14 Revaluing Science: Starting from the Practices of Women 161 Nancy Tuana 15 Is Science Multicultural? 171 Sandra Harding 16 On Knowledge and the Diversity of Cultures: Comment on Harding 183 Shigehisa Kuriyama The Task of a Philosophy of Technology 187 17 Philosophical Inputs and Outputs of Technology 191 Mario Bunge 18 Analytic Philosophy of Technology 201 Maarten Franssen 19 On the Aims of a Philosophy of Technology 205 Jacques Ellul 20 Toward a Philosophy of Technology 210 Hans Jonas 21 The Technology Question in Feminism: A View from Feminist Technology Studies 224 Wendy Faulkner Part III Defining Technology 239 Introduction 241 22 Conflicting Visions of Technology 249 Mary Tiles and Hans Oberdiek 23 The Mangle of Practice 260 Andrew Pickering 24 The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts 266 Trevor J. Pinch and Wiebe E. Bijker 25 Actor-Network Theory (ANT) 278 Bruno Latour 26 Actor-Network Theory: Critical Considerations 289 Sergio Sismondo Part IV Heidegger on Technology 297 Introduction 299 27 The Question Concerning Technology 305 Martin Heidegger 28 On Philosophy?s ?Ending? in Technoscience: Heidegger vs. Comte 318 Robert C. Scharff 29 Focal Things and Practices 329 Albert Borgmann 30 Heidegger and Borgmann on How to Affirm Technology 350 Hubert L. Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa 31 Philosophy of Technology at the Crossroads: Critique of Heidegger and Borgmann 362 Andrew Feenberg Part V Technology and Human Ends 375 Human Beings as ?Makers? or ?Tool-Users?? 377 32 Tool Users vs. Homo Sapiens and the Megamachine 381 Lewis Mumford 33 The ?Vita Activa? and the Modern Age 389 Hannah Arendt 34 Putting Pragmatism (especially Dewey?s) to Work 406 Larry Hickman 35 Buddhist Economics 421 E. F. Schumacher Is Technology Autonomous? 426 36 The ?Autonomy? of the Technological Phenomenon 430 Jacques Ellul 37 Do Machines Make History? 442 Robert L. Heilbroner 38 The New Forms of Control 449 Herbert Marcuse 39 Technological Determinism Is Dead; Long Live Technological Determinism 456 Sally Wyatt Technology, Ecology, and the Conquest of Nature 467 40 Mining the Earth?s Womb 471 Carolyn Merchant 41 The Deep Ecology Movement 482 Bill Devall 42 Deeper than Deep Ecology: The Eco-Feminist Connection 491 Ariel Salleh 43 In Defense of Posthuman Dignity 495 Nick Bostrom Part VI Technology as Social Practice 503 Technology and the Lifeworld 505 44 Cultural Climates and Technological Advance in the Middle Ages 511 Lynn White, Jr. 45 Three Ways of Being-With Technology 523 Carl Mitcham 46 A Phenomenology of Technics 539 Don Ihde 47 Postphenomenology of Technology 561 Peter-Paul Verbeek 48 Technoscience Studies after Heidegger? Not Yet 573 Robert C. Scharff Technology and Cyberspace 582 49 Consciousness in Human and Robot Minds 588 Daniel C. Dennett 50 Why Heideggerian AI Failed and How Fixing It Would Require Making It More Heideggerian 597 Hubert L. Dreyfus 51 A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century 610 Donna Haraway 52 A Moratorium on Cyborgs: Computation, Cognition, and Commerce 631 Evan Selinger and Timothy Engstroem 53 Anonymity versus Commitment: The Dangers of Education on the Internet 641 Hubert L. Dreyfus Technology, Knowledge, and Power 648 54 Panopticism 654 Michel Foucault 55 Do Artifacts Have Politics? 668 Langdon Winner 56 The Social Impact of Technological Change 680 Emmanuel G. Mesthene 57 Technology: The Opiate of the Intellectuals, with the Author?s 2000 Retrospective 693 John McDermott 58 Democratic Rationalization: Technology, Power, and Freedom 706 Andrew Feenberg

About the Author

Robert C. Scharff is Professor of Philosophy at theUniversity of New Hampshire. He is the author of Comte AfterPositivism (1995; 2002) and the former editor of ContinentalPhilosophy Review (1995-2005). He publishes on 19th- and20th-century Continental philosophy (especially Dilthey, Heidegger,and the hermeneutics of science), the history of positivism(especially Comte and Mill, and the connection between classicalpositivism and recent analytic philosophy), and the philosophy oftechnology. He is currently finishing a book manuscript, HowHistory Matters to Philosophy and a collection of essays onHeidegger and technology, and editing a Blackwell Guidebook Seriesvolume on Heidegger s Being and Time. Val Dusek is Professor of Philosophy at the University ofNew Hampshire. His research focuses on the history and philosophyof science and technology, with a particular interest in the socialfactors influencing scientific and technological development. Hehas written on non-mainstream philosophical influences (Asiatic,hermetic, romantic) on the history of electro-magnetic theory. Hisnumerous publications include Philosophy of Technology: AnIntroduction (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006) and co-editorship of thefirst edition of this volume.


?The second edition of Philosophy of Technology is a must-read for everyone trying to sort out how societies, technologies, politics, and nature come together, tacitly or not, in the constitution of human knowledge.? ? Jan Kyrre Berg Friis, University of Copenhagen ?This is an excellent selection of primary sources, essential to understanding technology and the conceptual debates about it. The editors are to be congratulated for their sensible choices and judicious introductions.? ?Luciano Floridi, University of Oxford

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