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Perfluorinated Chemicals (Pfcs)
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Table of Contents

Preface ix About the Author xv Abbreviations and Acronyms xvii Useful Conversion Factors xxi 1 What Fluoropolymers Are 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Evolution of Fluoropolymers and the Markets 3 1.3 PFAS Compounds 6 1.3.1 General Description 6 1.3.2 How They Are Made 10 1.3.3 The Proliferation of PFAS 15 1.4 Terminology 17 References 19 2 Definitions, Uses, and Evolution of PFCs 21 2.1 Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Of Interest 21 2.2 The PFC Family 43 2.3 PFOS 44 2.4 PFOA 49 2.5 Fluorotelomers 50 References 52 3 Fire Fighting Foams 55 3.1 What AFFFs Are 55 3.2 Environmental Impacts 58 References 62 4 Health Risk Studies 63 4.1 General 63 4.2 PFOA 65 4.3 PFOS 77 4.4 EFSA - EU Food and Safety Authority Findings 77 References 90 5 Overview of the Environmental Concerns 91 5.1 Where It All Began 91 5.2 Emerging Contaminants of Concern 93 5.3 PFOS 96 5.4 PFOA 100 References 107 6 The Supply Chain and Pathways to Contamination 109 6.1 Losses Along the Supply Chain and End of Life 109 6.2 Consumer Articles 119 6.3 Consumer Exposure to PFOS and PFOA 124 References 127 7 Standards, Advisories, and Restrictions 129 7.1 Extent of Groundwater Contamination in the United States 129 7.2 The U.S. Water Quality Standards 133 7.3 Remedial Guidelines 142 7.4 Standards in Other Countries 143 7.4.1 United Kingdom 144 7.4.2 Canada 144 7.4.3 Germany 145 7.4.4 Norway 145 7.4.5 European Union (EU) 146 7.4.6 OECD 148 7.4.7 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) 149 7.4.8 United Nation's Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) 150 References 151 8 Overview of Water Treatment Technology Options 153 8.1 Technology Options 153 8.2 Case Studies, Literature, and Technologies 156 Reference 163 9 Adsorption Technology 165 9.1 Overview 165 9.2 Activated Carbon and Other Carbonaceous Adsorbents 169 9.3 Zeolites 178 9.4 Polymeric Adsorbents 179 9.5 Oxidic Adsorbents 180 9.6 Adsorption Theory Basics and Isotherms 181 9.7 Adsorption of PFOA 186 9.8 Hardware and Operational Considerations 189 9.9 Backwashing 196 9.10 Permitting 197 9.11 Spent Carbon Management 197 9.12 Recommended References 198 References 201 10 Case Studies 203 10.1 PFOA in Southern New Hampshire 203 10.2 Former Wurtsmith Air Force Base 206 10.3 Dupont Washington Works in West Virginia 213 10.4 PFC Contamination in Minnesota 218 References 228 Index 229

About the Author

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff is the Principal of No Pollution Enterprises. He is a chemical engineer specializing in the safe handling and management of industrial chemicals and hazardous materials with nearly forty years of industry, business and applied research experience. He earned his B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from Clarkson College of Technology in Potsdam, New York. Over his long career he has worked pollution prevention and waste to energy projects in the refining, gas processing and the petrochemicals industries for numerous U.S. and foreign clients. For international lending institutions including the World Bank Organization, the U.S. Export-Import Bank, the International Finance Corporation, and donor agencies including the U.S. Agency for International Development, the U.S. Trade & Development Agency, and the European Union he has served as consultant and technical advisor on pollution management, worker safety, and environmental management practices. He has also held academic positions, including adjunct professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology and Farleigh Dickenson University, and has been an invited Lecturer at the Russian and Ukrainian Academies of Sciences, the Jordan University of Science and Technology, Texas A&M University, University of Missouri-Rolla, Cooper Union University, and the University of Leuven. He has authored, co-authored or edited more than 100 technical reference and textbooks.

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